Biomodulators of Anxiety
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2016, Pages: 7-12
Received: Dec. 17, 2015; Accepted: Jan. 7, 2016; Published: Feb. 19, 2016
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Preetham Elumalai, School of Aquatic Food Products and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad, Kochi, Kerala, India
Sreeja Lakshmi, School of Aquatic Food Products and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad, Kochi, Kerala, India
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Anxiety is a feeling of unease which everyone feels at some points in their lives. Anxiety becomes a disorder when the symptoms become chronic and interfere daily lives, including behavioral patterns and adaptations. Anxiety disorders come in many forms - Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic and Post-traumatic Stress disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Disorders, Social Anxiety Disorders and various Phobias. The state of anxiety is modulated by a multifarious and complex series of biomodulators of the categories, neurotransmitters, peptides and hormones comprising serotonin, norepinephrine, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), cortisol, Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF), Acetylcholine and many more. The article reviews the anxiogenic and/or anxiolytic functions of selected biomodulators in maintaining anxiety related behaviours.
Anxiety, GABA, Serotonin, Norepinephrine, HPA Axis
To cite this article
Preetham Elumalai, Sreeja Lakshmi, Biomodulators of Anxiety, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2016, pp. 7-12. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcems.20160201.12
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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