Please enter verification code
Analysis of the State and Development of Road Safety Education in Spanish Higher Education Institutions
Higher Education Research
Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2016, Pages: 10-18
Received: Oct. 26, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 5, 2016; Published: Dec. 5, 2016
Views 3017      Downloads 102
Francisco Alonso, DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (University Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Cristina Esteban, DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (University Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Sergio A. Useche, DATS (Development and Advising in Traffic Safety) Research Group, INTRAS (University Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety), University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Violeta Manso, Unit of Educational Intervention, Directorate–General of Traffic DGT, Salamanca, Spain
Article Tools
Follow on us
Traffic crashes are considered one of the major public health concerns, considering that this phenomenon explains a high number of deaths and injuries every year, and around all the world in different groups of population. The road safety education, (or traffic safety education), regarding the complexity of this process, and that it takes place during the complete process of life of individuals, is considered as a key determinant of road safety behaviors and a relatively lower road risk, essentially for road users with more and diverse high risk factors which may explain the occurrence of road accidents, such as young adults. The general objective of this study was to describe the associated factors to the Road Safety Education in the higher education institutions (universities) of Spain, and its relationship with road safety factors among young adults currently coursing a career in this kind of centers. Throughout this study, it was also assessed a set of indicators related with road safety education “outputs”, such as attitudes towards road safety, knowledge of traffic law and signals, risk perception and risky behaviors on the road. This cross-sectional study used a total sample of n=843 (357 (42.3%) men, and 486 (57.7%) women) university students, who answered a questionnaire designed to collect data about their psychosocial characteristics, factors associated with road safety education at Spanish higher education institutions and, finally, their attitudes, perceptions and self-reported behaviors as road users. Besides finding a very low participation of Spanish universities in road safety education, and of its students in these activities or programs, significant measures of association between individual factors and the employed road safety education indicators were found. Gender comparisons show substantial differences on road safety education indicators between men and women, being, in all cases, more adverse results corresponding to the male gender. Finally, it was built a multiple linear regression model, that allowed to establish the statistical influence of the road safety education on risky behaviors on the road of Spanish university students. This study shows that it is necessary to develop strategies to increase the presence of actions related to road safety education within universities, to improve the coverage and quality of the learning process of this subject among higher education students, and to include universities in the development of a multi-sectorial road safety education strategy.
Road Safety Education, Universities, Young Adults, Road Users, Road Safety, Traffic Accidents
To cite this article
Francisco Alonso, Cristina Esteban, Sergio A. Useche, Violeta Manso, Analysis of the State and Development of Road Safety Education in Spanish Higher Education Institutions, Higher Education Research. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 10-18. doi: 10.11648/j.her.20160101.12
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
WHO, “Global status report on road safety 2013: supporting a decade of action”. World Health Organization. Geneva, 2013.
D. R Mayhew, R. A. Warren, H. M. Simpson, “Young driver accidents: Magnitude and characteristics of the problem”. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Traffic Injury Research Foundation of Canada, 1981.
F. Alonso, C. Esteban, C. Calatayud, J. E. Medina, A. Egido, “Formación y educación vial. Una visión a partir de algunas prácticas internacionales”. Cuadernos de reflexión Attitudes. Valencia: University Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety (INTRAS), 2008.
J. P. Assailly, “Road safety education: What works?” Patient Education and Counseling, 2015. [Epub ahead of print].
K. Ampofo-Boateng, J. A. Thomson, “Child pedestrian accidents: A case for preventive medicine”. Health Education Research, 1990, 5, pp. 265-274.
M. E. Pico, R. E. González, O. P. Noreña, “Seguridad vial y peatonal: una aproximación teórica desde la política pública”. Revista Hacia la Promoción de la Salud, 2011, 16(2), pp. 190-204.
Dirección General de Tráfico, “Investigación descriptiva sobre peatones y viajeros en edad escolar: exposición al riesgo y accidentalidad”. España: DGT, 1995.
U. Trankle, C. Gelau, T. Metker, “Risk-perception and age-specific accidents of Young drivers”. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1990, 22, pp. 119-125.
C. Musselwhite, E. Avineri, E. Fulcher, Y. Susilo, “Understanding Public Attitudes to Road-User Safety. Literature Review: Final Report”. Road Safety Research Report No. 112. Department for Transport. Bristol, 2010.
M. Markl, “Effectiveness of Road Safety Educational Program for Pre-drivers about DUI: Practical Implication of the TPB in Developing New Preventive Program in Slovenia”. Transportation Research Procedia, 2016, 14, pp. 3829-3838.
S. Meyer, F. Sagberg, R. Torquato, “Traffic hazard perception among children”. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2014, 26, Part A, pp. 190-198.
E. A. Alexander, K. J. Kallail, J. P. Burdsal, D. L. Ege, “Multifactorial causes of adolescent driver accidents: investigation of time as a major variable”. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 1990, 11, pp. 413-417.
M. L. Meadows, S. G. Stradling, S. Lawson, “The Role of Social Deviance and Violations in Predicting Road Traffic Accidents in a Sample of Young Offenders”. British Journal of Psychology, 1998, 89, pp. 417-431.
F. Fylan, S. Stradling, “Behavioural Change Techniques used in road safety interventions for young people”. European Review of Applied Psychology / Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée, 2014, 64, pp. 123-129.
D. A. M. Twisk, J. J. F. Commandeur, W. P. Vlakveld, J. T. Shope, G. Kok, “Relationships amongst psychological determinants, risk behaviour, and road crashes of young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists: Implications for road safety education programmes”. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2015, 30, pp. 45-56.
R. J. Waxweiler, Y. Harel, P. W. O’Carroll, “Measuring adolescent behaviours related to unintentional injuries”. Public Health Reports, 1993, 108, pp. 11-14.
D. R. Poulter, F. P. McKenna, “Evaluating the effectiveness of a road safety education intervention for pre-drivers: An application of the theory of planned behaviour”. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 2010, 80, pp. 163-181.
A. A. Redhwan, A. J. Kharim, “Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Road Traffic Regulations Among University Students, Malaysia”. The International Medical Journal Malaysia, 2010, 9(2), pp. 29-34.
H. Iversen, T. Rundmo, “Attitudes towards traffic safety, driving behaviour and accident involvement among the Norwegian public”. Ergonomics, 2004, 47(5), pp. 555-572.
F. H. Nofal, A. A. Saeed, C. C. Anokute, “Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia”. Journal of the Royal Society of Health, 1996, 116, pp. 304-311.
H. Nishiuchi, “Traffic Safety Education and Awareness Activities in Japan”. Technical Report. Nagaoka University of Technology. Nagaoka, 2014.
W. Liu, “Traffic Safety Education and Information Campaign Activities in China”. Technical Report. Dalian University of Technology. Dalian, 2014.
T. Carthy, D. Packham, N. Rhodes-Defty, D. Salter, D. Silcock, “Risk and Safety on the Roads: Perceptions and Attitudes”. Foundation for Road Safety Research. Newcastle, 1993.
J. M. Ibrahim, H. Day, J. M. Hirshon, M. El-Setouhy, “Road risk-perception and pedestrian injuries among students at Ain Shams University Cairo, Egypt”. Journal of Injury and Violence Research, 2012, 4, 65-72.
T. Vaa, A. Fyhri, M. W. Sorensen, “Traffic education in Denmark: From cradle to wheel”. Oslo, 2012.
INRETS, “European drivers and road risk. Part 1: Report on principal results”. Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur sécurité. Paris, 2004.
INRETS, “European drivers and road risk. Part 2: Report on in-depth analyses”. Institut national de recherche sur les transports et leur sécurité. Paris, 2004.
F. Alonso, J. Sanmartín, C. Esteban, B. Alamar E. López, “Salud Vial. Diagnóstico de los conductores españoles”. Valencia: University Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety (INTRAS), 2008.
WHO, “Global status report on road safety: Time for action”. World Health Organization. Geneva, 2009.
O. Taubman-Ben-Ari, O. Musicant, T. Lotan, H. Farah, “The contribution of parents’ driving behavior, family climate for road safety, and parent-targeted intervention to young male driving behavior”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2014, 72, pp. 296-301.
E. Antonelli, “Self-bias e guida automobilistica: Un confronto tra giovani e anziani italiani”. [Self-bias and driving: A comparison between young and older Italian drivers.]. Rassegna di Psicologia, 2007, 24, pp. 129-152.
L. Walker, D. Butland, R. W. Connell, “Boys on the road: Masculinities, car culture, and road safety education”. The Journal of Men's Studies, 2000, 8, 153-169.
A. Brooks-Russell, B. Simons-Morton, J. Ehsani, “Parents Are the Key to Improving Teen Driving Safety”. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2014, 55, pp. 600-601.
F. Alonso, C. Esteban, C. Calatayud, A. Egido, “Speed and road accidents: risk perception, knowledge and attitude towards penalties for speeding”. Psychofenia, 2015, 31, pp. 63 -76.
F. Alonso, J. C. Pastor, L. Montoro, C. Esteban, “Driving under the influence of alcohol: frequency, reasons, perceived risk and punishment”. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 2015, 10:11.
F. Alonso, C. Esteban, L. Montoro, F. Tortosa, “Psychotropic drugs and driving: prevalence and types”. Annals of General Psychiatry, 2014, 13:14.
T. Rothengatter. (British Psychological Society, United Kingdom, 1984), 2, pp. 157-165.
A. Cuenen et al., “Effect evaluation of a road safety education program based on victim testimonials in high schools in Belgium”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2016, 94, pp. 18-27.
DTMR, “A guide to evaluating road safety education programs for young adults”. Department of Transport and Main Roads. Queensland, 2009.
C. S. Downing, “Traffic safety education for young children: An empirical approach”. In: Talib Rothengatter. Swets and Zeitlinger BV—Lisse, 1980. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 1982, 14, pp. 323-325.
S. A. Useche, A. Serge and F. Alonso, “Risky Behaviors and Stress Indicators between Novice and Experienced Drivers”. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 2015, 3(1), pp. 11-14.
B. Pawlowski, R. Atwal, R. I. M. Dunbar “Sex Differences in Everyday Risk-Taking Behavior in Humans”. Evolutionary Psychology, 2008, 6(1), pp. 29-42.
P. F. Waller, M. R. Elliot, J. T. Shope, T. E. Raghunathan, R. J. A. Little, “Changes in Young Adults Offence and Crash Patterns Over Time”. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2001, 33, pp. 117-128.
R. Lawton, D. Parker, S. G. Stradling, A. Manstead, “Predicting Road Traffic Accidents: The Role of Social Deviance and Violations”. British Journal of Psychology, 1997, 88, pp. 249-262.
Y. Kitamura, “The possibility of holistic safety education in Japan: From the perspective of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)”. IATSS Research, 2014, 38, pp. 40-47.
H. Sun, D. Yang, C. Chen, “Research and Application on Traffic Safety Education to Migrant Workers”. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2013, 96, pp. 418-424.
B. Cendales, S. A. Useche, V. Gómez, J. P. Bocarejo, “Bus Operators' Responses to Job Strain: An Experimental Test of the Job Demand-Control Model”. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. Advance online publication.
F. Lheureux, L. Auzoult, C. Charlois, S. Hardy-Massard, J. P. Minary, “Traffic Offences: Planned or Habitual? Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and habit strength to explain frequency and magnitude of speeding and driving under the influence of alcohol”. British Journal of Psychology, 2016, 107, pp. 52–71.
S. Useche, “Análisis de Errores y Violaciones de Tránsito en los Conductores de la Ciudad de Bogotá a través del DBQ (Driving Behaviour Questionnaire) [Analysis of traffic errors and violations in drivers of the city of Bogotá through the DBQ]”. Revista de Psicología Jurídica, 2011, 1, 29-37.
E. Moyano, “Theory of planned behavior and pedestrians' intentions to violate traffic regulations”. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2002, 5(3), pp. 169–175.
I. Van Schagen, T. Rothengatter, “Classroom instruction versus roadside training in traffic safety education”. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1997, 18, pp. 283-292.
D. A. M. Twisk, W. P. Vlakveld, J. J. F. Commandeur, J. T. Shope, G. Kok, “Five road safety education programmes for young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists: A multi-programme evaluation in a field setting”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2014, 66, pp. 55-61.
K. Pease, B. Preston, “Road safety education for young children”. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 1967, 37, pp. 305-313.
INTRAS, “Assessment of Road Safety Education in young, adults and elderly persons”. University Research Institute on Traffic and Road Safety –INTRAS. Valencia, 2015.
C. Muir, A. Devlin, J. Oxley, C. Kopinathan, J. Charlton, S. Koppel, “Parents as Role Models in Road Safety”. Technical Report. Monash University Accident Research Centre, 2010. (CHILD).
B. Strukcinskiene et al., “Similarities between self-reported road safety behavior of teenage drivers and their perceptions concerning road safety behavior of their parents”. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2014, 24, pp. 8-16.
O. Taubman-Ben-Ari, “Parents’ perceptions of the Family Climate for Road Safety: Associations with parents’ self-efficacy and attitudes toward accompanied driving, and teens’ driving styles”. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 2016, 40, pp. 14-22.
L. Bates, B. Watson, M. J. King, “The role of parents and non-parents in the supervision of learner drivers in Australia”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2014, 70, pp. 40-45.
O. Taubman–Ben-Ari, “Parents’ perceptions of the family climate for road safety”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2015, 74, 157-161.
D. Begg, R. Brookland, “Participation in driver education/training courses during graduated driver licensing, and the effect of a time-discount on subsequent traffic offenses: Findings from the New Zealand Drivers Study”. Journal of Safety Research, 2015, 55, pp. 13-20.
L. Rothman et al., “Associations between parents׳ perception of traffic danger, the built environment and walking to school”. Journal of Transport & Health, 2015, 2, pp. 327-335.
R. Christie, “The Effectiveness of Driver Training as a Road Safety Measure: A Review of the Literature”. RACV Report 01/03, 2008.
H. Feenstra, R. A. C. Ruiter, G. Kok, “Evaluating traffic informers: Testing the behavioral and social-cognitive effects of an adolescent bicycle safety education program”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2014, 73, pp. 288-295.
L. Malan, G. van Dijk, D. Fourie, “The strategy to align road safety education to the Further Education and Training band curriculum”. Africa Education Review, 2016, 13, pp. 132-146.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186