Please enter verification code
Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Erectile Dysfunction in Men with Type 2 Diabetes
International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology
Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2020, Pages: 77-82
Received: Dec. 2, 2020; Accepted: Dec. 17, 2020; Published: Dec. 22, 2020
Views 45      Downloads 30
Shahjada Selim, Department of Endocrinology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Hafiza Lona, Department of Biochemistry, Medical College for Women’s, Uttara, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Article Tools
Follow on us
Background and aims: Evidence suggests strong a relationship of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) with erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. The prevalence and long-term complications of diabetes are being recognize more increasingly that has the possible association again with VDD. Thus, the study aimed to find out the association between VDD and ED among Bangladeshi adult men with type 2 diabetes. Materials & Methods: This nested case-control study recruited 2860 adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had ED (aging between 30 - 69 years). The patients who found to have normal vitamin D level, were taken as control and those had VDD, were categorized as the case. The study was conducted in eight diabetes care centers of Bangladesh. Socio-demographic and personal information of the respondents were collected by face-to-face interview and disease-specific data were recorded from the patient’s diabetic record book. The bodyweight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference and blood pressure were also recorded. Fasting blood sample was collected to estimate serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and free testosterone. Results: The diabetes patients with ED had more severe VDD [(25 OH)D <10 ng/mL] than the controls (61.28% and 62.16%, respectively). The more severe form of ED found in the lower levels of serum vitamin D. A linear relationship of VDD was found with ED [OR 2.83, CI 2.36, 3.97] in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is an independent risk factor of ED in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus and severity of ED is linearly associated with the degree of deficiency of vitamin D.
Vitamin D, Erectile Dysfunction, Diabetes Mellitus
To cite this article
Shahjada Selim, Hafiza Lona, Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Erectile Dysfunction in Men with Type 2 Diabetes, International Journal of Diabetes and Endocrinology. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2020, pp. 77-82. doi: 10.11648/j.ijde.20200504.15
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Jumani DK, Patil O. Erectile dysfunction in diabetes mellitus: A review. J Diabetol 2020; 11: 1-7.
Thorve VS, Kshirsagar AD, Vyawahare NS, Joshi VS, Ingale KG, Mohite RJ. Diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. J Diabetes Complications. 2011; 25 (2): 129–136.
Feldman HA, Goldstein I, Hatzichristou DG, Krane RJ, McKinlay JB. Impotence and its medical and psychosocial correlates: results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. J Urol. 1994; 151 (1): 54–61.
Bahar A, Elyasi F, Moosazadeh M, Afradi G, Kashi Z. Sexual dysfunction in men with type II diabetes. Caspian J Intern Med. 2020; 11 (3): 295-303. doi: 10.22088/cjim.11.3.295.
Alwaal, AA, Mohannad B, Nathan KJ, Snoad, B (2020). Sexual Health Inventory for Men Questionnaire as a Screening Method for Erectile Dysfunction in a General Urology Clinic. Sexual medicine. 10.1016/j.esxm.2020.08.002.
Corona G, Giorda CB, Cucinotta D, Guida P, Nada E; Gruppo di studio SUBITO-DE. The SUBITO-DE study: sexual dysfunction in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes male patients. J Endocrinol Invest. 2013; 36 (10): 864–868.
Penson DF, Latini DM, Lubeck DP, Wallace KL, Henning JM, Lue TF; Comprehensive Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction (ExCEED) database. Do impotent men with diabetes have more severe erectile dysfunction and worse quality of life than the general population of impotent patients? Results from the Exploratory Comprehensive Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction (ExCEED) database. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26 (4): 1093–1099.
DeBerardis G, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, et al; Quality of Care and Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes (QuED) Study Group. Erectile dysfunction and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients: a serious problem too often overlooked. Diabetes Care. 2002; 25 (2): 284–291.
Esposito K, Giugliano F, Martedì E, Martedì E, Feola G, Marfella R, D’Armiento M, Giugliano D. High proportions of erectile dysfunction in men with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care. 2005; 28 (5): 1201–1203.
Sahin, MO, Sen V, Gunduz, G, Ucer, O. (2020). Effect of smoking cessation on sexual functions in men aged 30 to 60 years. International braz j urol, 46 (4), 642-648. Epub June 01, 2020.
Giuliano FA, Leriche A, Jaudinot EO, de Gendre AS. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction among 7689 patients with diabetes or hypertension, or both. Urology. 2004; 64 (6): 1196–1201.
Guay AT. ED2: Erectile dysfunction=endothelial dysfunction. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007; 36 (2): 453–463.
Cheitlin MD. Erectile dysfunction: the earliest sign of generalized vascular disease? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 43 (2): 185–186.
Malavige LS, Levy JC. Erectile dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. J Sex Med. 2009; 6 (5): 1232–1247.
Esposito K, Ciotola M, Giugliano F, et al. Endothelial microparticles correlate with erectile dysfunction in diabetic men. Int J Impot Res. 2007; 19 (2): 161–166.
Matthieu Halfon, Olivier Phan, Daniel Teta, "Vitamin D: A Review on Its Effects on Muscle Strength, the Risk of Fall, and Frailty", BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 953241, 11 pages, 2015.
Al-Nozha MM; Abdullah M, Arafah MR, Al-Maatouq MA, Al-Marzouki K, Al-Khadra A, Nouh MS, Al-Harthi SS, Al-Shahid MS, Al-Mobeireek A. Hypertension in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med. J. 2007, 28, 77–84.
Nitta, K. Impact of vitamin D metabolism on cardiovascular disease. Int. J. Clin. Med. 2011, 2.
Wang TJ, Pencina MJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Ingelsson E, Lanier K, Benjamin EJ, D’Agostino RB, Wolf M, Vasan RS, Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2008, 117, 503–511.
Schöttker B, Jorde R, Peasey A, Thorand B, Jansen EH, deGroot L, Streppel M, Gardiner J, Ordóñez-Mena JM, Perna L. Vitamin D and mortality: meta-analysis of individual participant data from a large consortium of cohort studies from Europe and the United States. Br. Med. J. 2014, 348, g3656.
Holick, MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007, 357, 266–281.
Al-Nozha MM, Arafah MR, Al-Mazrou YY, Al-Maatouq MA, Khan NB, Khalil MZ, Al-Khadra AH, Al-Marzouki K, Abdullah MA, Al-Harthi SS. Coronary artery disease in Saudia Arabia. Saudi Med. J. 2004, 25, 1165–1171.
Gallagher JC, Sai AJ. Vitamin D insufficiency, deficiency, and bone health. J. Clini. Endocrinol. Metab. 2010; 95: 2630–2633.
Wells S, Broad J, Jackson R. Alcohol consumption and its contribution to the burden of coronary heart disease in middle-aged and older New Zealanders: A population-based case-control study. NZMJ 2004 March; 117 (1190): 1-14. URL:
Shils ME, Shike M. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 1st ed.; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2006.
Caretta, Nicola & Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Saula & Valente, Umberto & Guarneri, Gabriella & Ferlin, Alberto & Avogaro, Angelo & Foresta, Carlo. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with erectile dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Endocrine. 2016; 53. 10.1007/s12020-015-0851-z.
Reis JP, vonMühlen D, Michos ED, Miller ER, Appel LJ, Araneta MR, Barrett-Connor E. Serum vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels and carotid atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 2017; 585–590 (2009).
Al-Tamini DJ, Ali AF. Serum 25 (OH) D in diabetes mellitus type 2: relation to glycaemic control. J Clin Diagn Res 2013; 7: 2686–2688.
Andrukhova O, Slavic S, Zeitz U, Riesen SC, Heppelmann MS, Ambrisko TD, Markovic M, Kuebler WM, Erben RG. Vitamin D Is a Regulator of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Arterial Stiffness in Mice, Molecular Endocrinology, January 2004; 28 (1): 53–64,
Tousoulis D, Papageorgiou N, Androulakis E, Siasos G, Latsios G, Tentolouris K, Stefanadis C. Diabetes mellitus-associated vascular impairment: novel circulating biomarkers and therapeutic approaches. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013. 62 (2013) 667e676.
Barassi A, Pezzilli R, Colpi GM, Romanelli MMC, d'Eril GVM. Serum vitamin D levels and erectile dysfunction: A systematic review and meta-analysis,. Andrologia, 2018; 51, 3.
Sorenson M, Grant WB. Does vitamin D deficiency contribute to erectile dysfunction? Dermatoendocrinol 2012; 4: 2, 128–136.
Selvin E, Burnett Al, Platz EA. Prevalence and risk factors for erectile 2007 Feb; 120 (2): 151-7.
Chiu KC, Chua A, Go VL, Saad MF. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction, Am. J. Clin. Nutr 2004 May; 79 (5): 820-5.
Pittas AG, Lau J, Hu FB, Dawson-Hughes B. The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis, J. Clin 2017 Jun; 92 (6): 2017-29.
Song Y, Wang L, Pittas AG, Del Gobbo LC, Zhang C, Manson JE, Hu FB. Blood 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels andincident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective studies, Diabetes Care 2013 May; 36 (5): 1422-8. doi: 10.2337/dc12-0962.
Peyton CC, Colaco MA, Kovell RC, Kim JH, Terlecki RP. Erectile dysfunction is predictive of endothelial dysfunction in a well visit population, J. Urol 2016 Apr; 195 (4 Pt 1): 1045-50. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2015.11.037. Epub 2015 Nov 22.
Reynolds JA, Haque S, Williamson K, Ray DW, Alexander MY, Bruce IN. Vitamin D improves endothelial dysfunction and restores myeloid angiogenic cell function via reduced CXCL-10 expression in systemic lupus erythematosus. Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 1; 6: 22341. doi: 10.1038/srep22341. PubMed PMID: 26930567; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4772382.
Uberti F, D. Lattuada, V. Morsanuto, et al., Vitamin D protects human endothelial cells from oxidative stress through the autophagic and survival path- ways, J. Clin. Endocrinol Metab 2014 Apr; 99 (4): 1367-74. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-2103. Epub 2013 Nov 27.
Naeem Z, AlMohaimeed A, Sharaf FK, Ismail H, Shaukat F, Inam SB. Vitamin D status among population of Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. Int J Health Sci 2011; 5: 116–117.
Alsuwaida, AO, Farag YM, Sayyari AAA, Mousa DH, Alhejaili FF, Al-Harib AS, Housawi AA, Mittal BV, Singh AK. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi adults. Saudi Med. J. 2013, 34, 814–818.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186