Alterations in Neurons of the Brainstem Due to Administration of Inhaled Tetrahydrocanabinol: A Quantitative Histopathology Study on Rats
Clinical Neurology and Neuroscience
Volume 1, Issue 1, February 2017, Pages: 8-13
Received: Dec. 29, 2016;
Accepted: Feb. 7, 2017;
Published: Mar. 9, 2017
Views 1636 Downloads 67
Meraiyebu Ajibola B., Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria
Odeh, Samuel O., Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Memudu Adejoke Elizabeth, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Bingham University, Karu, Nigeria
Raymond Vhriterhire, Department of Histopathology, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
Follow on us
A Quantitative Histopathology study on rats’ brainstem was used to analyze morphological alterations in the neurons and glial cells of rats that received inhaled tetrahydrocanabinol for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Puffing of smoke was performed with the use of a Hamilton syringe delivering 100ml puffs at 20s intervals into the nose only manifold. Smoke was first pumped into a 500ml dilution chamber with the aid of a vacuum pump. The smoke was then displaced from the dilution chamber through the nose-only manifold at 300ml/min; the rats received inhaled THC at 5ml/sec for 5 minutes. After administration for varying durations a selective cell staining of the neurons and glial cells in the rat’s pons, medulla and midbrain was carried out and used to study visible morphological changes in the tissues. Sections from the pons, medulla and midbrain were stained on slides for viewing under the microscope and photographed. Quantitative and qualitative histopathology study of photomicrographs was then used to analyze changes in the morphology and number of neurons. There was an increase in the ratio of neuronal cells comparing between the control and the treated groups with the pons (1:8), medulla (1:3) and the midbrain (1:5) which suggests neurogenesis and on further analysis of the slides show evidence of cell division. These findings can be of great importance in the study of neurodegenerative diseases and in understanding the influence of THC on brain.
Neurons, Glial Cells, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Inhalation Treatment, Pons, Medulla, Midbrain, Photomicrography, Brain Stem
To cite this article
Meraiyebu Ajibola B.,
Odeh, Samuel O.,
Memudu Adejoke Elizabeth,
Alterations in Neurons of the Brainstem Due to Administration of Inhaled Tetrahydrocanabinol: A Quantitative Histopathology Study on Rats, Clinical Neurology and Neuroscience.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2017, pp. 8-13.
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Campbell FA, Tramer MR, Carroll D, et al.(2001) Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review. [Review]. BMJ 2001; 323: 13–6.
Pertwee RG. Cannabinoid receptors and pain. [Review]. Prog Neurobiol 2001; 63: 569–611.
Iversen LL, Chapman V. Cannabinoids: a real prospect for pain relief? [Review]. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2002; 2: 50–5
Ameri, Angela (1999). The effects of cannabinoids on the brain. Progress in Neurobiology, 58, 315-348.
Grilly, David M. (2006). Drugs and human behavior (5th ed.) Boston: Allyn and Bacon, p. 268.
Abood, M., and Martin, B. (1992). Neurobiology of marijuana abuse. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 13, 201-206.
Sarafian Theodore A, Nancy Habib, Michael Oldham, Navindra Seeram, Ru-Po Lee, Laura Lin, Donald P. Tashkin, and Michael D. Roth.(2006) Inhaled marijuana smoke disrupts mitochondrial energetics in pulmonary epithelial cells in vivo: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 290: xL1202-L1209, 2006. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00371.2005, 1040-0605/06.
Michael L. Smith, Allan J. Barnes and Marilyn A. (2005) Huestis: Tetrahydrocannabinols in clinical and forensic toxicology. Przegl Lek, 2005.
Meraiyebu Ajibola. B, Odeh Samuel. O; (2012) Evaluation of Total Brain Acetylcholine in rats treated with inhaled Tetrahydrocannabinol. (A Bioassay Study). Journal of Natural science research (JNSR) ISSN: 2224-3186 (Paper), ISSN:2225-0921(Online) Vol 2, No. 9, 2012. Institute for science Technology and Education. www.iiste.org
Deon F., Louw Fang W., Yang and Garnette R., Sutherland, (2000). The effect of δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on forebrain ischemia in rat; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, The University of Calgary, Foothills Hospital, 1403-29 St. NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 2T9 doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(01)00967-0
Felder C. C., Nielsen A., Briley E. M., (1996). Isolation and measurement of the endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist, anandamide, in brain and peripheral tissues of human and rat. FEBS Lett; 393: 231–5.
Bisogno T., Berrendero F., Ambrosino G., (1999). Brain regional distribution of endocannabinoids: implications for their biosynthesis and biological function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 256: 377–80.
Tashkin DP. (2013) Effects of marijuana smoking on the lung. Annals of the American Thoracic Society 2013;10(3):239-247.
Lauren Cox; (2014) Marijuana: Effects of weed on brain and body. Live Science Contributor. LiveScience. (2014) www.livescience.com March 31, 2014.