Considering a Public Health Model for Control and Prevention of Emerging Infectious Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 1-1, February 2015, Pages: 7-13
Received: Dec. 22, 2014; Accepted: Dec. 25, 2014; Published: Feb. 15, 2015
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Author
Kenneth Anchang Yongabi, Tropical Infectious Diseases and Public Health Engineering Research group (TIDPHEng), Department of Public health, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda, Cameroon
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Abstract
Despite increasing global efforts to contain infectious diseases such as Ebola, HIV, and new strains of Hepatitis Virus, the spread and burden still constitute more than 25% of the global disease picture. In this report, insights on an innovative cost saving evolutionary learning laboratory model (ELS Lab) consisting of a systems approach to the control of infectious diseases are discussed. There have been many science-based analyses from demographic, epidemiologic, disease intervention, and economic control measures in Sub-Saharan Africa to curb infectious diseases, yet the continued spread of new and old infectious diseases poses a serious challenge to public health in SSA. There is persistent typhoid endermicity with emergence of new antibiotic resistant strains of salmonella typhi as well as non typhoidal salmonellosis. There is increasing resistant strains of Entameoba histolytica to metronidazle, poor response of patients to artemisinin based antimalarials and sporadic cholera is spreading. Although disease elimination programs such as against trypanosomiasis (chagas disease), onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, leprosy, trachoma, and measles are succeeding such as drancontiasis elimination process is very successful in northern Nigeria and Cameroon, ebola virus disease, dengue, leishmaniasis, african trypanosomiasis, malaria, diarrheal diseases, helminthes infections, and tuberculosis are re-emerging due to inadequate interventions and control strategies couple with breakdown of health delivery systems. In most countries in SSA, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is not less than 4% of the total population. The challenges caused by both new and old opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS couple with increasing resistance to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) calls for serious new intervention strategy. Endemic poverty and increasing changes in climatic pattern in the current control efforts especially with ebola virus are potentially playing a role in the persistence of these infections. We note that application of technologies must be culture driven, cost-effective with intensified research is essential if these and other scourges are to be controlled or eliminated in the 21st century. The process of ELS Lab involves all relevant stakeholders from rural and peri- urban setting, from end users of new medical technology innovations and indigenous management strategies to the developers of the technologies and policy awareness on the integration of safe and productive farm practices with less vulnerability to infections. We propose further capacity building and research into this model.
Keywords
Public Health, Model, Infections, Diseases, Systems Approach, Intervention
To cite this article
Kenneth Anchang Yongabi, Considering a Public Health Model for Control and Prevention of Emerging Infectious Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Special Issue:Clinical Innovations, Developments in the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Ebola Disease (Marburg fever) and Hemorrhagic Fevers. Vol. 3, No. 1-1, 2015, pp. 7-13. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcem.s.2015030101.12
References
[1]
K.A. Yongabi (2003) A technical Report Report on a capacity building training of rural women in some selected Communities of Bauchi State on Soap (Washing) Production. A technical Report submitted to Development Exchange Centre (DEC), Bauchi office, March 17, 2003, FEPA/ZERI CENTRE, ATBU BAUCHI.
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Bosch, O. J. H., Nguyen, N. C., & Sun, D. (2013). Addressing the critical need for a "new way of thinking" in dealing with complex issues facing our societies (Best Paper Award). Business Systems Review, 2 (2), pp 48-70 (Special Issue - Selected papers of the first B.S.Lab International Symposium).
[4]
Yongabi, K.A; Yusuf, I.Z; dongs, I.S.andAnong, D.S. (2004) Prevalence of Filariasis and Some Traditional methods of attending to the disease in Wum, North West of Cameroon. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology, Vol.18, No.1-2 ISSN0794-1293, PP207-211
[5]
K.A.Yongabi (2004) Medicinal plant biotechnology:It’s Role and Link in Integrated (The Role Of Medicinal plants in Environmental biotechnology and integrated biosystems Biosystems.) Proceedings of an International E –Seminar organized by the International Organization for Biotechnology and Bioengineering (IOBB), WebPage: www.biotech.kth.se/iobb/activities.(www.iobbnet.org,www.iobbnet.mpb.doc,March 8-22,2005.
[6]
K.A.Yongabi; M.O.Agho; A.L.Abdullahi and O.J.Abayeh (2005) An Integrated Bio-systems for Agricultural Wastes Management in Bauchi-Nigeria through Mushroom cultivation. Journal of League of Researchers in Nigeria (JOLORN) Vol.5, No.2, pp76to 81.
[7]
Yongabi, K. A. (2005) Development of a Pilot backyard farm at Kuru Jos, Plateau State CARUDEP, IBS project. Proceedings of an Internet conference on Phytoremediation and water purification, International Organisation of Biotechnology and Bio engineering http://www.iobbnet.org/iccb-africa/bbua
[8]
K.A Yongabi(2007)Inventory of African Indigenous Knowledge in water treatment and Sanitation in Cameroon and Nigeria:A Preliminary study on the disinfection of fresh human Excrement with Medicinal plant extracts,Kerosene and Saw dust,Accepted for Presentation at the International Conference on Sustainable Sanitation/Eco cities and Villages,Dongsheng,Erdos,Inner Mongolia,China,August 26 to 29
[9]
K.A.Yongabi, W.F.Mbacham, K.K.Nubia and R.M.Singh (2009) Yeast strains isolated from HIV-seropositive patients in Cameroon and their sensitivity to extracts of eight medicinal plants. African Journal of Microbiology Research,vol.3 (4),PP.133-136
[10]
Yongabi,K.A,Lewis,D.M and Harris,P.L Indigenous plant based coagulants and sand filter media for surface water treatment in Bamenda,Cameroon. African Journal of Biotechnology,Vol.10 (43),pp 8625-8629, online.www.academicjournals.org/AJB
[11]
Bob Orskov, Kenneth Yongabi,Madhu Subedi and Jo Smith (2013) Overview of holistic application of biogas for small scale farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, Biomass and Bioenergy) www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953414001251
[12]
Kenneth Yongabi, Lisa Avery and Ambar Pertiwiningrum (2013) A Commentary of Occupational Infectious Diseases due to Agricultural Practices in Sub- Saharan Africa, Biomass and Bioenergy www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953414001251
[13]
Yongabi Kenneth,Lewis David and Harris Paul (2010) Alternative Perspectives in water and wastewater treatment.(Blurb title:Phytocoagulant sand-filter and plastic anaerobic digesters for water and wastewater treatment.) Lambert Academic publishers, Germany. 127 pages, ISSBN 9783838387857)
[14]
Kenneth Yongabi Anchang (2013) An Evolutionary Learning Pharmaceutical Laboratory For Cost Saving Eradication of Malaria in Sub- Saharan Africa through phytobiotechnology.OMICS Group,International Submit on Clinical Pharmacy and Dispensing, November 18-20,2013,Hilton San Antonio Airport,TX, USA
[15]
Uptake of Nutritional Supplementation from Spirulina Platensis and African Medicinal plants for the therapeutic management of HIV/AIDs patients in Cameroon Kenneth Yongabi.www.formatex.info/icar2012/abstracts/htm/198.pdf
[16]
Kenneth Yongabi (2013)Invited lecture presented to the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology on: Disease burden in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Appraisal of Social, Cultural, and Economic and health policy implications on September 6, 2013 in the school of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.
[17]
Kenneth Yongabi (2013)Invited Lecture presented to the Global Health Institute on: Can we conquer malaria: A Reassessment of Current Intervention Strategies and potential application of Phytomedicine and Nutraceuticals on September 12, 2013, University of Wisconsin- Madison,USA
[18]
Kenneth Yongabi (2013) Invited Lecture presented to the Infectious Disease Doctors’ group of School of Medicine and Public Health on: Typhoid and febrile Illness: An Endermic but an Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Disease in Sub- Saharan Africa, University of Wisconsin- Madison, USA, September 27, 2013.
[19]
Kenneth Yongabi (2013) Invited Lecture presented to the School of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health on: Occupational infectious diseases due to agricultural practices in Sub-Saharan Africa with Focus on emerging Zoonotic infections, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA September 17, 2013
[20]
Kenneth Yongabi (2013) Invited Lecture Presented to the Department of Dermatology, School of Medical Sciences, and University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA on: Clinical Management of HIV/AIDS related skin Diseases in Cameroon with Bioactive Plant extracts. October 7, 2013
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