In vivo Efficacy of Ethanolic Extract of Cassia nigricans (Vahl) Against Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes (GIN) of Goats in West Nile Region, Uganda
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2016, Pages: 43-49
Received: Mar. 28, 2016;
Accepted: Apr. 11, 2016;
Published: Apr. 27, 2016
Views 3250 Downloads 81
Peter Oba, National Agricultural Research Organization, Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Arua, Uganda
Denis Asizua, National Agricultural Research Organization, Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Arua, Uganda
Godwin Komuntaro, National Agricultural Research Organization, Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Arua, Uganda
Nasser Kasozi, National Agricultural Research Organization, Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Arua, Uganda
Moses Kalenzi, National Agricultural Research Organization, Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Arua, Uganda
Michael Apamaku, National Agricultural Research Organization, Abi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Arua, Uganda
John Kateregga, Department of Pharmacy, Clinical and Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
James Okwee-Acai, Department of Pharmacy, Clinical and Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
Jimmy G. Ndukui, Department of Pharmacy, Clinical and Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
William Kabasa, Department of Biotechnical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
Katali K. Benda, National Agricultural Research Organization, Kachwekano Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Kabale, Uganda
Follow on us
Several plants are used by farmers for the treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in goats. However, their phytochemical properties, efficacy and safety is largely unknown. A trial was therefore designed to determine in vivo efficacy of ethanolic extract of Cassia nigricans against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in goats. Cassia nigricans leaves were collected from Arua District, Uganda. Ethanolic extraction method was to prepare extracts and the experimental goats were dosed accordingly. Treatments were assigned to five (5) groups of goats (n=9) as follows: Group A, the negative control (30ml of distilled water; group B, the positive control (Albendazole 10%, 8mg/kg). Groups C, D and E received extracts at 50, 100 and 150mg/kg, respectively. Live weights (LWs kg), faecal samples (for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) based on eggs per gram (EPGs) of faeces, packed cell volume (PCV %), total protein (TP g/dL), body condition scores (1-5) and Faffa Malan Chart (FAMACHA scores 1-5) were taken on day 1 of the experiment and subsequently at 7-day intervals for 4 weeks. Results revealed that a significant increase in LWs by 2nd week was observed in goats treated with Albendazole from 20.8 ± 1.9 to 21.9 ± 1.8 (p ≤ 0.05). No change in LWs and in TP was observed in all other groups (p ≥ 0.05). Only Albendazole treated group exhibited a significant increase of PCV in the 2nd week (p ≤ 0.05). EPGs were observed to significantly drop in those treated with Albendazole by the 2nd week from 300 ± 91 to 0 ± 0 and extract at 150 mg/kg dose from 740 ± 236 to 60 ± 25 (p ≤ 0.05). The FECR for Albendazole, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg doses of the extract were found to be 100%, 37.3%, 66.6% and 83.8% respectively. Only at 150 mg/kg dose did the extract show moderate efficacy in reducing mixed Strongyle spp faecal egg counts in goats. Strongyles spp. were the most predominant genera of nematodes found in goats. Further evaluations of leaf extracts and other plant parts is necessary to establish its potential as a source of local effective remedy against gastro-intestinal nematodes in goats.
Ethnoveterinary, Medicine, Cassia nigricans, Gastro-Intestinal, Nematodes, West Nile
To cite this article
Jimmy G. Ndukui,
Katali K. Benda,
In vivo Efficacy of Ethanolic Extract of Cassia nigricans (Vahl) Against Gastro-Intestinal Nematodes (GIN) of Goats in West Nile Region, Uganda, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
Vol. 4, No. 3,
2016, pp. 43-49.
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Nalule A, Mbaria J, Olila D, Kimenju J. Ethnopharmacological practices in management of livestock helminthes by pastoral communities in the dry lands of Uganda. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2011; 23(2).
Waller P. Sustainable nematode parasite control strategies for ruminant livestock by grazing management and biological control. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2006;126 (3-4): 277-89.
Githiori J, Höglund J, Waller P, Leyden B. Evaluation of anthelmintic properties of extracts from some plants used as livestock dewormers by pastoralist and smallholder farmers in Kenya against Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice. Vet Parasitol. 2003;118 (3-4): 215-26.
Ayo R, Amupitan J, Ndukwe I, Audu O. Some chemical constituents of the leaves of Cassia nigricans, Vahl African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2009 3(11): 208-11.
Athanasiadou S, Kyriazakis I, Jackson F, Coop R. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: in vitro and in vivo studies. Veterinary Parasitology. 2001; 99: 205-19.
Ayo RG. Phytochemical constituents and bioactivities of the extracts of Cassia nigricans Vahl: A review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2010;4(14): 1339-48.
Diehl M, Kamanzi Atindehou K, Tere H, Betschart B. Prospect for anthelmintic plants in the Ivory Coast using ethnobotanical criteria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004. 95: 277-84.
Ndukui J, Okwee-Acai J, Kateregga J. Methods of medicinal plants extract preparation. 2013 (unpublished).
Wood I, Amaral NK, Bairden K, Duncan JL, Kassai T, Malone Jr, JB., Pankavich, JA., Reinecke, RK., Slocombe, O., Taylor, SM., Vercruysse, J. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P) second edition of guidelines for evaluating efficacy of anthelmintics in ruminants (bovine, ovine, caprine). Vet Parasitol. 1995 (58)181-213.
van Wyk JA, Bath GF. The FAMACHA system for managing haemonchosis in sheep and goats by clinically identifying individual animals for treatment. Vet. Res. 2002; 33(5): pp. 509-29.
Coles G, Bauer C, Borgsteede F, Geerts S, Klei T, Taylor M, Waller PJ. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet Parasitol. 1992; 44: pp. 35-44.
Dash K, Hall E, Barger I. The role of arithmetic and geometric mean worm egg count reduction tests and in monitoring strategic drenching programs in sheep. Aus. Vet. Journal. 1988(62):66-8.
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry. Manual of Veterinary Parasitological Laboratory Techniques, Technical Bulletin No 18. Great Britain1971. pp. 16-21.
Vercruysse J, Holdsworth P, Letonja P, Barth D, Conder G, Hamamoto K, et al. International harmonization of anthelmintic efficacy guidelines. Vet Parasitol. 2001; 96: pp. 171-93.
Githiori J, Hoglund J, Waller P. Ethnoveterinary plant preparations as livestock dewormers: practices, popular beliefs, pitfalls and prospects for the future. Anim Health Res Rev. 2005; 6(1): 91-103.
Abo K, Lasaki S, Adeyemi A. Laxative and antimicrobial properties of Cassia species growing in Ibadan. Nig. J. Nat. Prod Med. 1999. 3: pp. 47-50.
Sheferaw D, Getachew D, Bekele J, Denbarga Y. Assessment of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants, Dale district, Southern Ethiopia. J. Vet Med. Anim. Health. 2013. 5(9): pp. 257-61.
Sheferaw D, Asha A. Efficacy of selected anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep owned by smallholder farmers in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia. Eth Vet J. 2010; 14(2): pp. 31-8.
Benda K. K., Ampaire A, Komungyeyo J, Mukiibi R, Masembe C, Onzima R. Efficacy of Commercially Available Anthelmintics in Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats Managed Under Natural Conditions in the South Western Highlands of Uganda. American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 2015; 3(6): pp. 355-63.
Nsereko G, Emudong P, Magona J, Odoch T, Okwee-Acai J. Anthelmintic efficacy of Albendazole, Levamisole and Ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematode infections in goats on natural pastures in Gomba District, Uganda. Uganda J. Agric. Sci. 2013; 14(1): 75-85.
Abo K, Adeyemi A. Seasonal accumulation of anthraquinones in leaves of cultivated Cassia podocarpa Guill. et Perr. African Journal of Medicinal Science. 2002; 31(2). pp. 171-73.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods, A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis, 1998. 3rd ed. London: Chapman and Hall.
Deshpande HA and Bhalsing SR. Recent advances in the phytochemistry of some medicinally important Cassia species: A review. Int. J. Pharm. Med. & Bio. Sc. 2013. Vol. 2, No. 3. pp. 60-78.
Waterman C, Smith RA, Pontiggia L, DerMarderosian A. Anthelmintic screening of Sub-Saharan African plants used in traditional medicine. J. Ethnopharm. 2010. Vol. 127. pp. 755-759.