American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2015, Pages: 194-199
Received: Jun. 10, 2015;
Accepted: Jun. 21, 2015;
Published: Jul. 15, 2015
Views 3867 Downloads 71
Ibrahim F. S., Forensic medicine and clinical toxicology department, faculty of medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Ali M. M., Forensic medicine and clinical toxicology department, faculty of medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Issak M., Forensic medicine and clinical toxicology department, faculty of medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Ewaiss M., Medical biochemistry and molecular biology department, faculty of medicine, Benisueif university, Benisueif, Egypt
Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides. After exposure to Atrazine during pregnancy, it can be found in placental tissue. We investigated the toxic effects of different Atrazine concentrations on human cytotrophoblasts. These cells were isolated from fresh placenta and were exposed to Atrazine for 24 hours. Our results showed that very low doses of Atrazine induced apoptotic placental cell death. It decreased the relative survival of human cytotrophoblastsup to 50% of control. It significantly decreased P53 and TNF- alpha genes expression while Bcl2 gene expression was increased insignificantly. Our findings suggested that exposure of placental cells to Atrazine even in low doses causes harmful effects, leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity and pregnancy loss.
Ibrahim F. S.,
Ali M. M.,
Atrazine Genotoxicity on Human Placental Cells, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2015, pp. 194-199.
Oh SM, Shim SH, Chung KH. Antiestrogenic action of atrazine and its major metabolites.Journal of Health Science. 2003, 49(1) 65-71.
USEPA. National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report 2003.Special Studies Edition, 2003.Available:http://epa.gov/air/airtrends/aqtrnd03/pdfs/toc.
Mona M H,Reda MG, Ibrahim BH, NahlaEO ,Wesam MS .Evaluation of cytotoxic effects of atrazine and glyphosate herbicides on Biomphalariaglabrata snails. The Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology. 2013, 66 (2): 68–75.
Rohr JR, Crumrine PW. Effects of an herbicide and an insecticide on pond community structure and process.Ecological Applications 2005, 15(4), 1135-1147.
Allaire AD, Ballenger KA, Wells SR, McMahon MJ, LesseyBA.Placental apoptosis in preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 96(2):271-276.
Levy R , Nelson DM. To be, or not to be, that is the question. Apoptosis in human trophoblast. Placenta 2000, 21(1);1–13.
Cantemir C, Cozmei C, Scutaru B, Nicoara S, Carasevici E. p53 Protein expression in peripheral lymphocytes from atrazine chronically intoxicated rats. Toxicol Letters. 1997, 93(2-3); 87 – 94.
Kharfi A, Bureau M, GiguèreY,MoutquinJM, Forest JC. Dissociation between increased apoptosis and expression of the tumornecrosisfactoralpha system in term placental villi with preeclampsia.ClinBiochem. 2006 ;39(6):646-51.
PathakRK ,Dikshit AK. Atrazine and Human Health.International Journal of Ecosystem.2011, 1(1): 14-23.
Cui, F.J., Li, Y., Xu, Y.Y., Liu, Z.Q., Huang, D.M., Zhang, Z.C et al. Induction of apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells by polysaccharide peptide GFPS1b from the cultured mycelia of GrifolafrondosaGF9801.Toxicol In Vitro. 2007;21(3):417-427.
Chan, Y.H. Biostatistics102: Quantitative Data – Parametric & Non parametric Tests. Singapore Med. J.2003; 44(8): 391-396.
Jung Kim Y, Chun Ryu J. Genotoxicity Assessment of Atrazine in the Big Blue® Rat2lacI Transgenic Cell Line. Toxicol. Environ. Health. Sci. 2012, 4(3), 161-166.
Nwani CD, Nagpure NS, Kumar R, Kushwaha B, Kumar P, Lakra WS. Mutagenic and genotoxic assessment of atrazine-based herbicide to freshwater fish Channapuntatus(Bloch) using micronucleus test and single cell gel electrophoresis. Environ ToxicolPharmacol. 2011; 31(2):314-22.
Zhang X, Wang M, Gao S, Ren R, Zheng J , Zhang Y. Atrazine-induced apoptosis of splenocytes in BALB/C mice. BMC Medicine. 2011, 9:117.
Benachour N,Aris A.Toxic effects of low doses of Bisphenol- on human placental cells. ToxicolApplPharmacol. 2009; 241(3):322-8
Deng X, Gao F, Flagg T, Anderson J, Stratford S. Bcl2’s Flexible Loop Domain Regulates p53 Binding and Survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2006; 26(12):4421-34.