Effect of Shift-Work on Hypertension Among Factory Workers in Ethiopia
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2015, Pages: 142-148
Received: Apr. 17, 2015; Accepted: May 22, 2015; Published: Jun. 8, 2015
Views 4320      Downloads 110
Henok Asresahegn Asfaw, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Health Sciences, Jigjiga University, Jijiga, Ethiopia
Ephrem Mamo Gebrehiwot, Departments of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Assosa University, Assosa, Ethiopia
Solomon Shiferaw, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Background: Shift work is associated with several health problems, possibly due to an impairment of biological rhythms. Some studies reported that changes in blood pressure regulation among shift workers could lead to chronic hypertension. So this study aimed to determine and compare the level of and risk factors for hypertension among shift and day time workers. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study of 830 current factory workers (413 shift workers and 417 day time workers) who have worked for at least five years was conducted in Wonji Shoa sugary factory, Ethiopia. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire, and blood pressure was measured using standardized instruments by trained clinical nurses. Hypertension was defined as having Systolic BP ≥140 mmHG or Diastolic BP≥ 90mmHG or reported use of regular anti-hypertensive medications prescribed by professionals for raised BP. Multiple logistic regressions were fitted and Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to identify independently associated factors. Results: shift work, older age, higher income quintile, and family history of hypertension were found to be independently associated with Hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher among shift workers compared to daytime workers (42.9% versus 30.0%; p-value<0.05)). Multivariate analysis revealed the odds of being hypertensive among shift workers persists even after controlling for potential confounders including age, income, and family history of hypertension. [AOR (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.02, 2.14)]. Shift workers were also significantly more likely to be smokers compared to day-time workers (6.5 % versus 13.1 %; p-value<0.001). Conclusions: shift work, older age, higher income quintile, and family history of hypertension were found to be independently associated with Hypertension. The finding calls for institutionalization of efficient health screening and regular checkups as well as interventions promoting healthy lifestyles among shift workers.
Hypertension, Shift Work, Factory Workers
To cite this article
Henok Asresahegn Asfaw, Ephrem Mamo Gebrehiwot, Solomon Shiferaw, Effect of Shift-Work on Hypertension Among Factory Workers in Ethiopia, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2015, pp. 142-148. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20150304.13
Pati AK, Chandrawanshi A, Reinberg A: Shift work: Consequences and management. Review article.
Moore-Ede M, Richardson G: Medical implications of shift work. Annu Rev Med1985, 36:607-617.
Coffey L, Skipper J, Jung F: Nurses and shift work effects on job performance and job-related stress. J Adv Nursing1988, 13:245-54.
Spiegel K, Leproult R, Van Cauter E: Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. Lancet1999,23(354):1435-9.
McNamee R, Binks K, S Jones D, Faulkner A, Slovak N, Cherry M: Shiftwork and mortality from ischaemic heart disease. Occupational and Environmental Medicine1996,53:367-69.
Wang M, Armstrong B, Cairns T, Key J, Travis R: Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence. Occupational Medicine 2011, 61:78-89.
Knutsson A, Akerstedt T, Jonsson B, Scand: Prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease among day and shift workers. J Work Environ Health1988, 14:317-21.
Mohd Nazri, S Tengku, M Winn, T: Association of Shift Work and Hypertension among Male Factory Workers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Department of Community Medicine. January 2008, 39:1.
A. Tran, B. Gelaye, B. Girma, S. Lemma, Y. Berhane, T. Bekele, et al. Prevalence ofMetabolic Syndrome amongWorking Adults in Ethiopia. International Journal of Hypertension2011:3.
Sfreddo C, Fuchs SC, Merlo AR, Fuchs FD. Shift work is not associated with high blood pressure or prevalence of hypertension. PLoS one 2010 Dec 14; 5(12).
World Health Organization, “Chronic diseases and health promotion: Stepwise approach to surveillance (STEPS),”2010, http://www.who.int/chp/steps/manual/en/index.html.
A. A. Motala, J. C. Mbanya, and K. L. Ramaiya, “Metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa,” Ethnicity & disease, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. S2–S8, 2009.
Nazri S, Tengku M, Winn T. The association of shift work and hypertension among male factory workers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health2008 Jan;39(1):176-83.
Karlsson B, Knutsson A, Lindahl B. Is there an association between shift work and having a metabolic syndrome? results from a population based study of 27,485 people. Occupational and Environmental Medicine2001; 58(11):747-52.
Kivimäki M, Kuisma P, M V, Elovainio M. Does shift work lead to poorer health habits? a comparison between women who had always done shift work with those who had never done shift work. Work and Stress2001;15(1):3-13.
Zhao I, Bogossian F, Song S, Turner C. The Association between Shift Work and Unhealthy Weight: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the Nurses and Midwives' e-Cohort Study. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine 02/2011; 53 (2):153-8.
R. Sodjinou, V. Agueh, B. Fayomi, and H. Delisle, “Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns,” BMC Public Health, vol. 8, article 84, 2008.
O. O. Oladapo, L. Salako, O. Sodiq, K. Shoyinka, K. Adedapo, and A. O. Falase, “A prevalence of cardio metabolic risk factors among a rural Yoruba south-western Nigerian population: a population-based survey,” Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 26–31, 2010.
F. Tesfaye, P. Byass, and S. Wall, “Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic,” BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, vol. 9, article no. 39, 2009.
F. Tesfaye, N. G. Nawi, H. Van Minh et al., “Association between body mass index and blood pressure across three populations in Africa and Asia,” Journal of Human Hyperten-sion, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 28–37, 2007.
F. Tesfaye, P. Byass, S. Wall, Y. Berhane, and R. Bonita, “Association of smoking and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) use with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006,” Preventing Chronic Disease, vol. 5, no. 3, article A89, 2008.
R. BeLue, TA Okoror, J Iwelunmor et al., “An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective,” Global Health, vol. 5, article 10, 2009.
L. Fezeu, E. Minkoulou, B. Balkau et al., “Association between socioeconomic status and adiposity in urban Cameroon,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 105– 111, 2006.
K. S. Reddy and S. Yusuf, “Emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries,” Circulation, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 596–601, 1998.
H. C. Onyegbutulem, P. I. H-Onyegbutulem, M. Reimann, J. Li, S. R. Bornstein, and P. E. Schwarz, “Metabolic syndrome in Africa: an emerging perspective,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 75–78, 2009.
D. Kebede, A.Alem,G.Mitikeetal.,“Khat and alcohol use and risky sex behaviour among inschool and out-of-school youth in Ethiopia,” BMC Public Health, vol. 5, article no. 109, 2005.
B. Assefa, ”Ethiopian trade union report,” ILO- East Africa Multi-Disciplinary Advisory Team-Profile of Employment and Poverty in Africa, September 2002, Geneva.
C. Richard, K. Jay, M. Walinjom, M. George., “Hypertension treatment and control in sub-Saharan Africa: the epidemiological basis for policy,’’BMJ. Feb 14, 1998; 316(7131): 614–617.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186