Please enter verification code
Bacteriological and Physiochemical Analysis of Oguta Lake Water, Imo State, Nigeria
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 5-1, September 2015, Pages: 14-19
Received: Jul. 1, 2015; Accepted: Jul. 22, 2015; Published: Sep. 2, 2015
Views 6593      Downloads 230
Okorondu S. I., Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Imo State, Nigeria
Anyadoh-Nwadike S. O., Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Imo State, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Bacteriological and Physiochemical analysis were carried out on Oguta lake water from three guage stations; upstream, midstream and downstream used for drinking and recreational purposes in Imo State, South-Eastern, Nigeria. The results obtained were compared with World health organisation (WHO) and Environmental protection agency (EPA) standards for drinking and recreational water respectively. The following parameters; conductivity (30.8 us\cm), colour (90.67 pt\co), iron (0.47 mg\l), lead (0.18 mg\l), cadmium (0.08 mg/l), nitrate (0.9 ml) and odour (unpleasant) did not meet WHO standards while temperature (30.8oC), pH (5.71cpu), total dissolved solids (TDS) (73.87 mg/l), total solids (TSS) (7 mg/l), turbidity (17 ntu), phosphate (0.19 mg/l), sulphate (0.19 mg/l), manganese (0.1 mg/l) and appearance (clear) met the standards. None of the samples conformed to WHO and EPA bacteriological standards for total heterotrophic count of 1.0x10-2 in 100 ml of water, total coliform count and feacal coliform count of 1:100 ml of water for drinking and recreational water. Samonella, Shigella and Vibro cholera were not detected. The presence of coliforms in water for drinking and recreational purposes is of public health significance considering the possibilities of the presence of other bacteria, protozoa and enteric viruses that are implicated in gastro-intestinal water borne diseases and the low infectious dose of these water borne pathogens. Presence of chemicals in water is also of great concern, health effect from chemicals have been difficult to assess because the impact is not acute like that of pathogens, but often cumulatively resulting to cancer and sometimes death. The general public should be educated on dangers of contaminated water as well as prevention of indiscriminate dumping of domestic and industrial wastes into the lake.
Water, Drinking, Recreational, Bacteriological, Physiochemical, Coliform
To cite this article
Okorondu S. I., Anyadoh-Nwadike S. O., Bacteriological and Physiochemical Analysis of Oguta Lake Water, Imo State, Nigeria, Science Journal of Public Health. Special Issue: Who Is Afraid of the Microbes. Vol. 3, No. 5-1, 2015, pp. 14-19. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.s.2015030501.13
UNICEF, Global Water supply and sanitation Assessment, 2000 reporting WHO and UNICEF, USA.
O. Y. Ababio, New School chemistry, PEP International press limited, 1990, P. 256 – 261.
G.O. Main, “Surface water treatment for Odi community in Bayelsa state. A case study of river Nile,” unpublished project report.
E. I. Chukwurah, Aquatic Microbiology, Etoba press limited: Onitsha, Nigeria, 2001.
O. Oyodeji, P.O. Olutiola, and M.A. Munmola, “Microbiological quality of packaged Drinking water bran marked in Ibadan metropolis and Ile-Ife in South western,” Nigeria African Journal of Microbial. Research , vol. 4(1), Pp. 96 – 102, 2010.
H.E. Birmingham, L.A. Loa, N. Ivdayiminje, S. Nkurikiye, B. S. Horsh, J. G. Wells and M.S. Ijeming, “Epidemic Cholera in Burundi, patterns of transmission in the Gadat – rift valley lake region,” Lancet, vol. 349, Pp. 981 – 983, 1997.
E. Jawetz, J. L. Meinick and E.A. Adelberg, Medical microbiology (19th ed), Apputon and Lange, Honwalk: Connecticut, 1991.
P.B. Kelly, K.S. Ndubani, P. Wchuto, N. A. Luo, R.A. Feldman and M.J. Parthing, “Cryptoparidiosis in adults in Lusaka, Zambia and its relationship to Oocyst contamination of drinking water,” Journal of infectious disease, vol. 176, Pp.: 1120 – 1125, 1997.
T. W. Hejkal, B. Koswick, R. L. Labolle, C. P. Gorba, V. Sanchez, G. Droesman, B. Hafkin and J.L. Meinick, “Viruses in a community water supply associated with an outbreak of gastroenteritis and infectious hepatitis,” Journal of the American water association, vol. 14, Pp. 317 – 321, 1982.
S. Bonjelloun, B. Bahbouhi, N. Bouchrat, L.A. Chericaoni, N. Had, J. Mahjour, and A. Bensumane, “Seroepidemiological study of an acute Hepatitis E. outbreak,” Morocco. Research Virology, vol. 148, Pp. 279 – 283, 1997.
C.O. Owuama and A. P. Uzoije, “Waste disposal and Ground Water quality in Owerri,” Nigeria journal of Environmental systems, vol. 31(1), Pp. 69 – 79, 2005.
APHA, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste water (20th Ed.), American Public Health Assoication: New York, 1998, Pp 81 – 85.
M. Cheesbrough, District laboratory practice in tropical countries, Part 2, Cambridge University Press: UK, 2004.
M.O. Edema, A.M. Omonu and O. M. Fapotu, “Microbiological and physiochemical Analysis of different sources of drinking Water in Abeokuta, Nigeria," Nigerian Journal of. Microbiology, vol. 15(1), Pp. 57 – 61, 2001.
S.W. Ibe and J. Okplonye, “Bacteria Analysis of Borehole Water in Uli Nigeria,” Afr. J. Appl. Env. Biol. 7: 116 – 119, 2005.
E.W. Kiman – Muraat and A.M. Ngindu, “Quality or Water the slum Dwellers use: The case of a Kenyan Slum,” Journal of Urban Health, vol. 84 (6), Pp. 829 – 838, 2007.
O. Obiro, and M Aguda, “Bacteria community of Loachotate from a waste dump and an Adjacent stream,” Journal of Appl. Science. Environmental. Mgt, vol. 6(2), Pp. 77 – 76, 2004.
P. Welch, J. David, Clarke Tapo, Borstons, M.C. Dougaltia and A. A. Ade siyin, “Microbial sanitation of Water in Rural Communities of Trinidad,” Pan Amor T. J. Public Health 8(3): 72 – 180, 2000.
O. B. Shittu, J. O. Olaitan and T. S. Amusa, “Physiochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Water used for drinking and swimming purposes in Abeokuta Nigeria,” African Biomedical Research, 2: Pp. 285 – 290, 2008.
A.V. Majula, G.K. Shankar and S.M. Preeti, “Bacteriological analysis of drinking water samples,” Journal of Microbiology, Vol. 18 (1 – 2), Pp. 387 – 391, 2011.
WHO, Water sanitation and Health programme, Managing water on the home accelerated health gains from improved water sources. World health organization 2004. Accessed, 10th June 2014.
A.O. Ajayi, and K.A. Akonal, “Distribution pattern of Enteric organisms in Lagos Lagoon,”African Journal of Biomedical Research, vol. 8 issue 3, pp.163 – 168, 2005.
WHO, Guidelines for analyzing water quality 4th Edition. WHO press, ISBN 978 – 921, 2011.
1. O. Okonko, O.O. Adejoye, T. A., Ogunnusi, E.A. Fajobi and O.B. Shittu, “Microbiological and Physio-chemical analysis of different water samples used for domestic purposes in Abeokuta and Ojota Lagos state, Nigeria,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol.. 7(3), Pp. 617 – 621, 2008.
J.O. Adejuwon and K. A. Adelakun, “Physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of surface water in Ewekoro local Governent Area of Ogun State Nigeria: Case study Lala, Yobo and Agodo Rivers,” International. Journal. water Fes and Environment Engineering, vol. 4, (3), Pp. 66 – 72, 2012.
T.D. Reynolds, and P.A. Ricard, Operations and Processes in environmental engineering publishing company, (2nd Ed), Bosten, 1996.
EPA, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Recreational Water quality criteria,” EPA 820 -12 -061, 2012.
T.B. Hoekman, “Heavy metal toxicology,” http://www.heavy metals.html. October, 2000. Accessed 20th April, 2015.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186