Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults. An Analysis of Survey Data on Chronic Non-Communicable Disease at Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, South West Ethiopia
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages: 281-290
Received: Dec. 8, 2014; Accepted: Dec. 14, 2014; Published: Mar. 18, 2015
Views 3352      Downloads 388
Tesfa Birlew, Department of Public Health, Mizan- Aman Health Science College, Mizan Teferi, south nation nationalities and people regional state (SNNPRS), Ethiopia
Fessahaye Alemseged, Department of Epidemiology, College of public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Oromia regional states, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Background: Population based survey study on hypertension risk factors among adults in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess hypertension risk factors (socio-demographic and behavioural) among adults aged 15-64 years, at Gilgel gibe field research center, 2013. Methods: An analysis of population based cross-sectional survey data on chronic non-communicable diseases was carried on, between March and May 15, 2013 at the Field Center. Four thousand & fifty five individuals (hypertensive=303, non-hypertensive=3752) were involved for analysis. Principal investigator together with data miner extracts the required data. Bivariate analysis of the association between the explanatory and outcome variable were carried out and assessed using Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval; variables in a binary screening found at p-value ≤ 0.25 candidate, and then Multiple logistic regression analysis employed to find out significant socio-behavioural factors associated with being hypertensive, employing Statistical Program for Social Science version 20.0. Result: Four thousand and fifty five (90.7%) out of the planned sample engross in the analysis (hypertensive =7.5%; women 179 (4.4%; Non-hypertensive = 92.5%). And the age groups of 45-54 years were substantial number of suffering hypertension 67(7.8%). Female, able to read and write only, alcohol binge women and vigorous recreational exercise were predictors of hypertension. Men and urban residents were less likely to be hypertensive (Odd Ratio =0.74 and, 0.82, respectively). Current Khat chew was highest among hypertensive (Odd Ratio =1.07(95%CI: 0.84-1.36). Reported risk factor: low fruit &/ or vegetable serve was the highest both in normotensive (42%) & 43% in hypertensive, and total level of physical inactivity was the lowest among hypertensive (1.7%), and current alcohol consumption 5.5% among normotensive. The results of bivariate analysis illustrated female, alcohol binge women and vigorous exercise in leisure were statistically significant with Odd Ratio of (1.35, 6.12 and 2.03) times more likely hypertensive, respectively. Then multivariate analysis, denote the Odd Ratio value of being female was 1.32, able to read and write only 1.60, binge women 6.78 and vigorous recreational activity 2.61 times more likely to have the disease, in the current study. Conclusion & Recommendation: Socio-behavioural risk factors for hypertension were common, so provision of health education & setting up of and strength a surveillance system for hypertension and its risk factors and further extended studies including biological risk factors; is necessary to reduce the burden of hypertension, in the survey population.
Risk Factors, Hypertension, Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, South West Ethiopia
To cite this article
Tesfa Birlew, Fessahaye Alemseged, Risk Factors for Hypertension among Adults. An Analysis of Survey Data on Chronic Non-Communicable Disease at Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, South West Ethiopia, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2015, pp. 281-290. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150302.29
Prevett M. Chronic non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia. A hidden burden. Ethiop J Health Sci.2008; 22(2):1-2.
WHO. Global status report on no-communicable diseases. 2010:1-160.
Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, Jones DW, et al. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment. Clinician’s corner.2003; 289(19):2560-2572.
Margaret McDonald, Françoise Pickart M. The global burden of no-communicable diseases. 2009:1-16.
Mocumbi AOH, Ferreira MB. Neglected cardiovascular diseases in Africa. Challenges and Opportunities. JACC.2010; 55(7):680–7.
Federal Ministry of Health in Ethiopia (FMOH). The health Sector development programmefour (IV) in Ethiopia. 2010:1–57.
Tesfaye F. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Ethiopia: The rural-urban gradient. Sweden: Umea University, 2008:1-76.
World Economic Forum (WEF). The global economic burden of NCDs. 2011:1-35.
WHO. Non-communicable diseases country profiles. 2011:5–19.
ICAP. Strengthening chronic disease services in Ethiopia . Lessons Learned from HIV / AIDS program implementation. 2010:11–17.
Chockalingam A, Facc MS, C NRCF, C JGFF. Worldwide epidemic of hypertension. 2006; 22(7):553–5.
AjeA, Adebiyi A and FalaseAO. Hypertensive heart disease in Africa. SA heart. 2009; 6(1):42–51.
Marleen E. Hendriks, Ferdinand W. N. M. Wit, Marijke T. L. Roosetal. Hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa.Cross-sectional surveys in four rural and urban communities. 2012; 7 (3): 1-10
Res M, Jaipur T, VI J. Hypertension & pre-hypertension in developing countries. 2008:688–90.
Tuso PJ. Serve Ethiopia. The permanent journal/ summer 2009/.2009, 13(3):61–4.
WHO. Rationale for surveillance of chronic disease risk factors .WHO steps surveillance. 2008: 1-17. Available at: www.who.int/chp/steps/resources/database/en/index.html
Solomon T, Mariam MH, Selassie H. Ethiopia Country Report.RAD AID org. 2007:1-25.
The Harvard school of public health multidisciplinary international research training program, Addis continental institute of public health and international clinical laboratories. Symposium on non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia. 2012:1–3.
Tesfaye F, Nawi NG, Minh HV, Byass P, Berhane Y, Bonita R, et al. Association between body mass index and blood pressure across three populations in Africa and Asia. J of Human Hypertension. 2008; 21:28–37.
WHO. New data highlight increases in hypertension, diabetes incidence: Geneva, 2012:1-87
Central Statistical Agency (CSA) [Ethiopia]. Ethiopia demographic and health survey. Central Statistics Authority, Addis Ababa. 2011: 1-22.
Tesfaye F, Byass P, Berhane Y, Bonita R, Wall S. Association of smoking and khat use with HBP among adults in Addis Ababa. 2008; 5(3):1–11. Available at: www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/jul/07_0137.htm
Muluneh AT, Haileamlak A, Tessema F, Woldemichael K, Asefa M, Mamo Y, et al. Population based survey of chronic non- communicable diseases at Gilgel gibe field research center , Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2012; 22:1-61.
Alemseged F, Haileamlak A, Tegegn A, Tessema F, Woldemichael K, et al. Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases at Gilgel gibe field research center , Southwest Ethiopia :. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2012; 22(1):1-61.
Cortez AL. The international development strategy beyond 2015 : Considering demographic dynamics. Economic& Social Affairs. 2012; 122(1):7-16.
Ibrahim MM, Damasceno A. Hypertension &pre-hypertension in developing countries. The Lancet; 2012; 380(9841):611–9. Available at: www.thelancet.com
Ferrucci L, Giallauria F and GJ. Epidemiology of Aging. RadiolClin North Am. 2009; 46(4):1–19.
AdugnaA. Non-infectious adult disease.2008:3-5.Available at: www.Ethio-demographyAnd Health. Org
Erem C, Hacihasanoglu A, Kocak M, Deger O, Topbas M. Prevalence of pre-hypertension, hypertension, and associated risk factors among Turkish adults : Trabzon hypertension study. 2008; 31(1):47–58.
Sidhu S, Kumari K. Socio-demographic variables of hypertension among adult Punjabi females. J. Hum. Eco. 2005; 17(3):211–5.
Andre Pascal Kengne, Paschal KumAwah, Leopold Fezeuetal. The burden of high blood pressure and related risk factors in Douala, Cameroon. J African Health Sciences. 2007; 7(1):38-44.
Tazi MA, Lahmouz F, Arrach ML, Chaouki N. Risk factors for hypertension among. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2009; 15(4):827–41.
Sarma VA, Nakarj K. socio-demographic determinant of hypertension. J Hum Ecol, Chitoor District. 2001; 12(3):191–4.
Jf W, Karyabakabo Z, Ndungutse D, Guwatudde D. Prevalence& factors associated with Hypertension in Rukungiri District, Uganda - A Community-Based Study. J Africa health sci. 2009; 9(3):153–60.
Mayega RW, Makumbi F, Rutebemberwa E, Peterson S. Modifiable socio-behavioural factors associated with overweight and hypertension among persons aged 35 to 60 years in Eastern Uganda. 2012;7(10)
Goma FM, Nzala SH, Babaniyi O, Songolo P, Zyaambo C, Rudatsikira E, et al. Prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in Lusaka urban district of Zambia : a population based survey. Biomed Central Ltd; 2011; 4(1): 1-6. Available at: http://www.intarchmed.com/content/4/1/34
Awoke A, Awoke T, Alemu S, Megabiaw B. Prevalence, and associated factors of hypertension among adults in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia . 2012; 12 (1):1-6.Available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2261/12/113
Giday A, Tadesse B. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in sidama zone, Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J.2011; 49 (2):139–47.
Rutledge TF. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Prevalence of selected risk behaviors and chronic diseases and conditions, United States, 2010; 59:2005–8.
Mocumbi, AO. Lack of focus on cardiovascular disease in SSA, Mocumbi. Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy. Cardiovasculardiagn ther.2012; 2(1):74-77.Available at: http://www.thecdt.org/article/view/103/183
Al-hamdan NA, Al-zalabani AH, Saeed AA. Comparative study of physical activity of hypertensive and normotensives : Saudi Arabia. 2012; 19(3):162–6.
Ali HA, Al-asadi JN. Prevalence and lifestyle determinants of hypertension among secondary school female teachers in Basrah. MJBU. 2009; 27(2):90-94.
Nanchahal K, David W, Wood DA. Alcohol consumption, metabolic cardiovascular risk factors and hypertension in women. 2000:57–64.
Ramirez SS De, Enquobahrie DA, Nyadzi G, Mjungu D, Magombo F. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension : SSA. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2010; 24(12):786–95. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2010.14
Tesfaye F, Byass P, Berhane Y, Bonita R. Association of Smoking and Khat ( Catha edulisForsk) Use With HBP Among Adults in Addis Ababa .2008 ; 5(3):1–11.
Chhetri MR. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension and diabetes among elderly population. 2008: 1–214.
A Bener, J Al-Suwaidi, K Al-Jaber, S Al-Marri, IEA Elbagi. Epidemiology of hypertension and its associated risk factors in the Qatari population.Journal of Human Hypertension. Scientific letter. 2004:1-2. Available at: www.nature.com/jhh
Solomon T, Alemseged F. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among diabetic patients in Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci.2008; 20(2):121-128.
Lemma S. Assessment of Risk Factors for Selected Chronic Diseases among Higher Education Students in Addis Ababa. 2007:1–82.
Min H. Social and demographic factors associated with diabetes and hypertension in Hawaii . Hawaii journal of public health. 2009; 3(1):36–41.
Ibrahim NKR, Hijazi NA, Bar AAA. Prevalence &determinants of pre-hypertension and hypertension among preparatory and secondary school teachers in Jeddah. J Egypt public health assoc. 2008; 83 :( 3&4):183–203.
Getahun1W, GedifT and TesfayeF.Regular Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is associated with elevated diastolic blood pressure among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia: A comparative study. 2010:1-8.
Ravi T, Carlos A; Meir J, Gary C, Eric B.Prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and risk of hypertension in young women.Arch intern med. 2002; 162:1-6
WHO. World health survey results: Ethiopia 2003. Geneva: WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/whseth.Ethiopia.Pdf. Accessed on April20, 2013.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186