Critical Segments in the Dissemination and Transmission of Salmonella Species from Poultry Production in Calabar, Nigeria
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages: 168-174
Received: Jan. 9, 2015; Accepted: Jan. 18, 2015; Published: Feb. 11, 2015
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Nchawa Yangkam Yhiler, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Medical Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Bassey Enya Bassey, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Medical Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; World Health Organization, UN HOUSE, Plot 617/618, Central Area District, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria
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Salmonella species are ubiquitous enteric bacteria, its ability to survive at different stages of the poultry production and food processing chain has been frequently reported in recent years. The present study was undertaken to investigate the points in the segments involved in the production of poultry in Calabar as vital sources of dissemination and transmission of Salmonella species to humans. A total of 374 samples were collected from three study segments involved in the production of poultry in Calabar, within the period of August 2013 and May 2014. 170 samples were collected from different points in poultry environment which includes (feed from feeders, water from drinkers, litter/faeces from floor, abattoir reins and drag swab from wall); 136 samples were taken from the live birds (cloacal swab, gut, carcass and egg); and 68 samples were derived from poultry handlers (stool specimens and hand wash). The samples were collected aseptically and analysed for the presence of Salmonella species based on the ISO 6579:2002 involving standard bacteriological, biochemical and serologic techniques. The Chi-square, student t-test and simple descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data obtained in this study at 95% confidence level. Salmonella species were recovered from 221 (59.1%) of the examined samples involved in the production of poultry in Calabar. There was no significant statistical difference in the rate of recovery of Salmonella species from the poultry environmental segment (58.8%), bird segment (55.1%) and poultry handlers segment (67.6%) (P = 0.230), implying that these three segments are equally important in the maintenance, dissemination and transmission of Salmonella species. Salmonella species were recovered from all the study sample points implying that all the study poultry sample points are sources of Salmonella species. However, the highest recovery rate of Salmonella species was observed in the stool sample points of poultry handlers (91.2%) and poultry gut sample points (79.4%) which were significantly different from the rest of the poultry sample points (P = 0.021), implying that these two sample points are the major sources of Salmonella species and are critical in the dissemination and transmission of Salmonella species.
Salmonella Spp, Poultry, Production Segment, Dissemination/Transmission
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Nchawa Yangkam Yhiler, Bassey Enya Bassey, Critical Segments in the Dissemination and Transmission of Salmonella Species from Poultry Production in Calabar, Nigeria, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2015, pp. 168-174. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150302.13
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