A New Test System and a New Cause for Acquired Foveal Color-Vision Deficiency
International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2016, Pages: 8-19
Received: Aug. 22, 2016; Accepted: Nov. 8, 2016; Published: Dec. 2, 2016
Views 4213      Downloads 115
Terry Bahill, Systems and Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson Arizona, USA
Article Tools
Follow on us
The purpose of this paper is to show a new cause of a macular scotoma and an anomalous acquired color-vision deficiency in the clinical fovea caused by retina detachments and subsequent surgeries. This deficiency was measured with a visual test system composed of multiple lasers, a white light beam and dozens of targets that were projected on a computer monitor and printed on paper. Lasers were used, because they produce small monochromatic target dots, 0.07 degrees of visual angle (6 mm) in diameter. The outputs of the system were the subject’s perceived color matches. In experiments with small dots of laser light, colors were judged correctly by the right eye (OD): however, the left eye (OS) could not distinguish colors. For example, a green laser dot appeared green to his OD and white to his OS. Perceived color in the abnormal OS depended on the target’s hue, saturation, luminance, wavelength, size and position on the fovea. This subject has an acquired color-vision deficiency in the clinical fovea of his OS. These visual anomalies are consistent with damage to retinal ganglion cells. Strangely, his OS does not see negative-color afterimages.
Acquired Color-Vision Deficiency, Color Perception, Color Vision, Peeling Inner Limiting Membrane, Unilateral Dichromate
To cite this article
Terry Bahill, A New Test System and a New Cause for Acquired Foveal Color-Vision Deficiency, International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 8-19. doi: 10.11648/j.ijovs.20160101.12
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Daniel (2016) Color Blind Essentials, www.color-blindness.com Accessed September 2, 2016.
Wagner BT and Kline D (2016) The Bases of Colour Vision, University of Calgary, http://psych.ucalgary.ca/PACE/VA-Lab/Brian/default.htm Accessed September 2, 2016.
Jafarzadehpur E, Hashemi H, Emamian, MH et al. (2014) Color vision deficiency in middle-aged population: the Shahroud eye study, Int Ophthalmol 34: 1067-1074. doi:10.1007/s10792-014-9911-2.
Bahill AT and Barry PJ (2014) Multimodal views of the human retina. Ophthalmol. Res. An International J. 2 (3): 126-131.
Bahill AT and Barry PJ (2014) A patient’s viewpoint of cataract and retinal detachment surgeries, Ophthalmol. Res. An International J. 2 (6): 294-324.
Tadayoni R, Svorenova I, Erginay A, Gaudric A and Massin P (2012) Decreased retinal sensitivity after internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 96 (12): 1513-1516. doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2012-302035.
Poon WKM, Ong GL, Ripley LG and Casswell AG (2001) Chromatic contrast thresholds as a prognostic test for visual improvement after macular hole surgery: color vision and macular hole surgery outcome. Retina. 21 (6): 619-626.
Simunovic MP (2016) Acquired color-vision deficiency, Survey of Ophthalmology, Volume 61, Issue 2: 132–155.
Pacheco-Cutillas M, Edgar DF and Sahraie A (1999) Acquired colour vision defects in glaucoma—their detection and clinical significance, Br J Ophthalmol; 83: 1396-1402 doi:10.1136/bjo.83.12.1396.
Nork TM (2000) Acquired color vision loss and a possible mechanism of ganglion cell death in glaucoma. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 98: 331–363.
Cole BL, Lian KY and Lakkis C (2006) The new Richmond HRR pseudoisochromatic test for colour vision is better than the Ishihara test. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 89: 73–80. doi:10.1111/j.1444-0938.2006.00015.x.
Smith VC and Pokorny J (2003) Color matching and color discrimination, Chapter 3 in The Science of Color, ISBN 0–444–512–519, Elsevier Ltd.
Feldman M, Todman L and Bender M (1974) 'Flight of colours' in lesions of the visual system. J. Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 37: 1265-1272.
Bridgeman B, Winter D and Tseng P (2010) Dynamic phenomenology of grapheme-color synesthesia. Perception. 39: 671-676.
Bradtmiller B, Hodge B, Kristensen S and Mucher M (2008) Anthropometric Survey of Federal Aviation Administration Technical Operations Personnel, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC 20591.
Krauskopf, J (1963) Effect of Retinal Image Stabilization on the Appearance of Heterochromatic Targets, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 741-744 https://www.osapublishing.org/josa/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-53-6-741 Accessed 25 Aug 2016.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186