Defluoridation of Drinking Water by Activated Carbon Prepared from Tridax Procumbens Plant (A Case Study of Gashaka Village, Hong L. G. A., Adamawa State, Nigeria)
International Journal of Computational and Theoretical Chemistry
Volume 7, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 1-5
Received: Jan. 13, 2019;
Accepted: Feb. 26, 2019;
Published: Mar. 18, 2019
Views 143 Downloads 28
Ahmad Hussaini Jagaba, Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Sule Abubakar, Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Mohammed Abdu Nasara, Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Safiya Muhammad Jagaba, Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, Katsina, Nigeria
Hayatu Mohammed Chamah, Federal Road Safety Corps, Bauchi, Nigeria
Ibrahim Mohammed Lawal, Department of Civil Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
Follow on us
Water is an essential element for the sustainability of human life on earth. Thus, portable drinking water is scarce and not readily available to all. Rural communities consume contaminated water and take ill periodically, which later results in epidemics. Contamination of drinking water may be caused by natural sources or industrial effluents due to domestic, agricultural and industrial activities. One of such contaminants is fluoride which is a salt of the element fluorine. Several treatment technologies for removing fluoride from groundwater have been investigated. This study focused on providing potable drinking water with fluoride level within the limit specified by the World Health Organization (WHO) to the people of Gashaka village. To achieve this, fluoride concentration and some physical properties in the water sample were determined. Subsequently, treatment of the sample by herbal means using activated carbon prepared from the stem of Tridax procumbens was carried out to prevent or minimise the effects of fluoride on human health such as skeletal fluorosis, dental fluorosis, fractures in bones, immune deficiency, cancer and other diseases caused by high concentration of fluoride in water since it possesses properties capable of greatly reducing fluoride concentration. The experimental result shows that fluoride concentration in the sample obtained was 2.3 mg/l which exceeds the 0.7 mg/l - 1.2 mg/l range recommended by WHO. The effective contact time for fluoride removal was found to be 6 hours while the maximum dose of activated carbon for the effective removal of fluoride concentration in 100 mg of water was found to be 1.05 g which removed 85.6%. However, subsequent addition of the activated carbon tends to increase fluoride concentration in the sample.
Activated Carbon, Defluoridation, Flouride, Portable Water, Tridax Procumbens
To cite this article
Ahmad Hussaini Jagaba,
Mohammed Abdu Nasara,
Safiya Muhammad Jagaba,
Hayatu Mohammed Chamah,
Ibrahim Mohammed Lawal,
Defluoridation of Drinking Water by Activated Carbon Prepared from Tridax Procumbens Plant (A Case Study of Gashaka Village, Hong L. G. A., Adamawa State, Nigeria), International Journal of Computational and Theoretical Chemistry.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-5.
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
N. O. Shalom, C. Nwinyi, Y. Adetayo & N. E. Vivienne, (2011). Assessment of water quality in Canaanland, Ota, Southwest Nigeria. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America.
S. Abubakar, I. M. Lawal, I. Hassan, A. H. Jagaba (2016). Quality Water Analysis of Public and Private Boreholes (A Case Study of Azare Town, Bauchi, Nigeria). Americal Journal of Engineering Research 5(2):204-208.
O. F. Nwabor, E. I. Nnamonu, P. E. Martins, & O. C. Ani (2016). Water and Waterborne Diseases. International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health.
A. V. Jamode, V. S. Sapkal and V. S. Jamode (2004). Defluoridation of Water Using Inexpensive Adsorbents, J. Indian Inst. Sci., 84:163 – 171.
World Health Organization (2004). Fluoride in drinking-water, background document for development of who guidelines for drinking-water quality.
M. Aghaei, M. Darakhshari, M. Raoof, M. Deligahi, and A. H. Mahvi (2015). Effect of fluoride in drinking water on birth height and weight. Research report Fluoride 48(2):160-168.
L. Aggerborn and M. Othman (2016) The Effects of Flouride in the Drinking Water. JEL Classification: I10, H42: I18.
S. Nazneen (2012). Study of Fluoride Concentration in the River (Godavari) and Groundwater of Nanded City. International Journal of Engineering Inventions. 1(1):11-15.
M. Singanan (2013). Excessive Fluoride in drinking water can affect human health. Int. J. of Environmental Engineering, 5(2):150 – 160.
G. Gayathri, B. C. Kumar Raju, D. S. Reddy and M. Beulah (2017). Defluoridation of Ground Water Using Low-Cost Adsorbents. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering. 10(5):967-972.
N. A. Ingle, H. V. Dubey, N. Kaur, & A. Nagpal, (2014) Defluoridating Water. British Dental Journal 216:437.
A. H. Jagaba, S. Abubakar, I. M. Lawal, Ab Aziz Abdul Latiff, I. Umaru, (2018). Wastewater Treatment Using Alum, the Combinations of Alum-Ferric Chloride, Alum-Chitosan, Alum-Zeolite, and Alum- Moringa Oleifera as Adsorbent and Coagulant. International Journal of Engineering Management. 2(3):67-75.
S. P. H. Puthenveedu, J. Chonattu, M. Tharayil (2012). Defluoridation of water using biosorbents. Natural Science, 4(4):245-251.
M. Suneetha and K. Ravindhranath (2012). Removal of Nitrite from Polluted Waters using Bio-sorbents derived from Powders of Leaves, Barks or Stems of Some Herbal Plants. International Journal of Chemical, Environmental and Pharmaceutical Research, 3(1):24-34.
S. S. Pingale (2013). Study of Antimicrobial Potential of Tridax Procumbens L. Int. J. Bioassays, 2(6):866-869.
N. H. Pathode and D. V. Parwate (2015). Separation of Ni(II) and Hg(II) ions from synthetic wastewater by adsorption on activated carbon derived from Tridax procumbens. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 4(12).
T. K. Rao, I. V. Kasiviswanath and Y. L. N. Murthy (2009). Defluoridation of water by nanotechnology. Journal of Water Science & Technology. 9.5:485-491.
APHA (2005). Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington. 21st Edition.
P. C. Raghavendra, H. S. Manjunath & K. S. Jayantha (2015). Defluoridation studies using activated carbon prepared from ‘Tridax procumben’ plant. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 6.
C. Janardhana, G. N. Rao, R. S. Sathish & V S. Lakshman (2006). Study on defluoridation of drinking water by impregnation of metal ions in activated charcoal. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 13:414-416.
World Health Organization (2007). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality.