Chemical Investigation of Alkaleri Kaolin Deposit for Its Potential Industrial Applications
American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 5, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages: 130-134
Received: Sep. 11, 2017; Accepted: Sep. 26, 2017; Published: Nov. 11, 2017
Views 1387      Downloads 64
Zerendu Chikaodinaka Christian, Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Ameji John Philip, Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Haruna Muhammad Idris, Department of Chemistry, Audu Bako College of Agriculture, Dambatta, Kano, Nigeria
Zaharaddeen Shehu, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Jigawa State Polytechnic, Dutse, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The kaolin sample from Alkaleri in Bauchi State was analyzed to ascertain its metal and metal oxides content and to investigate their potential use for industrial purposes. Neutron activation analysis technique was used for the metals while the turbimetric and Molybdenum Blue methods were used to determine the sulphates and phosphates respectively. The result showed that the Alkaleri kaolin with Fe (1.3 x 10-3%), K2O(0.53%), Na2O( 0.018%), TiO2 (4.6x10-4%), meets the specification for paper, ceramics, rubber, porcelain, pharmaceutics, cosmetics and glaze production but its alumina content is slightly below the minimum requirement for these uses except for rubber for which the content is within the specified value and for tiles for which the value is slightly above the specification. The combination of sulphate and phosphate contents which are 4.71% and 2.18ppm respectively could increase their absorbing property and makes them more useful for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The pH value of the kaolin was found to be 4.3 which makes it unsuitable for most industrial purposes, e.g. rubber and plastic production, the pH need to be increased to 5-7 range (the preferred value for most industrial uses). The nitrate and chloride contents indicated values of 18ppm and 0.3ppm respectively.
Alkaleri, Kaolin, Neutron Activation, Metals, Metal Oxide
To cite this article
Zerendu Chikaodinaka Christian, Ameji John Philip, Haruna Muhammad Idris, Zaharaddeen Shehu, Chemical Investigation of Alkaleri Kaolin Deposit for Its Potential Industrial Applications, American Journal of Chemical Engineering. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2017, pp. 130-134. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20170506.12
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ground report (2016). What makes kaolin clay different from kaolinite clay. Retrieved 07 August, 2017 from
Newman, A., 1987. Chemistry of Clay and Clay Minerals, Min. Soc. Mon., London, 6, 480.
Konta, J., 1980. Properties of ceramic raw materials. Ceramic monographs. Handbook of ceramics, Schmid -Freiburg, 1-32.
Murray, H., 2000. Traditional and new applications for kaolin, smectite, and palygorskite: a general overview, Applied Clay Science, Vol. 17, No. 5-6, 207-221.
Cravero, F., Gonzalez, I., Galan, E., and Dominguez, E., 1997. Geology, mineralogy, origin and possible applications of some Argentinian kaolins in the Neuquen basin. Applied Clay Science, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 27-42.
Prasad, M., Reid K. and Murray H., 1991. Kaolin: processing, properties and applications. Applied Clay Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 87-119.
Murray, H., 1991. Overview—clay mineral applications. Applied Clay Science, Vol. 5, No. 5-6, 379-395.
Burst, J., 1991. The application of clay minerals in ceramics. Applied Clay Science, Vol. 5, No. 5-6, 421-443.
Murray, H., and Kogel, J., 2005. Engineered clay products for the paper industry, Applied Clay Science, Vol. 29, No. 3-4, 199-206.
Velho J. and Gomes, C., 1991. Characterization of Portuguese kaolins for the paper industry: beneficiation through new delamination techniques. Applied Clay Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 155-170.
Bundy, W., and Ishley J., 1991. Kaolin in paper filling and coating. Applied Clay Science, Vol. 5, No. 5-6, 397-420.
Schupp, J. R., Fallahi, E., and Chun, I.-. J., 2004. Effect of Particle Film on Fruit Sunburn, Maturity and Quality of “Fuji” and “Honeycrisp” Apples. Acta Hort. (ISHS) Vol. 636, 551-556.
Jonah, S. A., Umar, I. M., Oladipo, M. O. A., Balogun, G. I. and Adeyomo, D. J. (2006): Standardization of NIRR-1 Irradiation and Counting Facilities for Instrumental Activation Analysis. J. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 64: 818 – 822.
Johnstone, S. J., Johnstone, M. G. (1961). Minerals for the Chemical and Allied Industries. In: Ahmed, K. S. (1986). Development of Phospate-Bonded Fire Clay Refractory Castables. Unpublish M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Hansen, T. (2003). Titanium oxide, Titania. Ceramic materials Data Base. Retrieved 10 August, 2017 from
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186