Impact of Alkali Concentration and Metakaolin Content on Accelerated Ageing of Egyptian Slag
American Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 30-38
Received: May 28, 2015;
Accepted: Jun. 6, 2015;
Published: Jun. 19, 2015
Views 4480 Downloads 120
Hamdy Abd El-Aziz Abdel Gawwad, Housing and Building National Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Hesham Mohamed Khater, Housing and Building National Research Center, Giza, Egypt
Saleh Abd El-Aleem Mohamed, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt
The present work aims to study the coupled effect of alkali concentration and metakaolin (MK) on the resistivity of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) to strength regression during ageing. GGBFS was activated by 6 and 10 wt., % containing mixture of sodium hydroxide (SH) and liquid sodium silicate (LSS) at a ratio of 1:1, respectively (namely GGBFS6 and GGBFS10). On the other hand, GGBFS10 was replaced by 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt., % of MK, respectively. All hardened specimens were cured in 100% relative humidity (RH) at 37 ± 2°C for 28 days (zero time) then, aged at 95°C for 56 days. Experimental results showed that, the pH value of alkali activated samples (AAS) decreased as the amount of MK increased. Also, the pH of AAS derived from GGBFS10 was higher than that of GGBFS6. The strength regression resistivity (SRR) during accelerated ageing enhanced with the decrease of alkali concentration. The compressive strength for different investigated mixes was evaluated. Also, some selected hydration products were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and X- ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to determine the mineralogical phase transition. The results of mechanical properties are in a good agreement with those of FTIR, TG/DTG and XRD techniques and confirm that the SRR during ageing increases with MK content.
Hamdy Abd El-Aziz Abdel Gawwad,
Hesham Mohamed Khater,
Saleh Abd El-Aleem Mohamed,
Impact of Alkali Concentration and Metakaolin Content on Accelerated Ageing of Egyptian Slag, American Journal of Chemical Engineering.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 30-38.
S. Akyuz, A. Oner, “An experimental study on optimum usage of GGBS for the compressive strength of concrete,” Journal of Cement and Concrete Composites, 29 (6), pp. 505-514, 1992.
O. Boukendakdji, S. Kenai, E.H. Kadri, F. Rouis, “Effect of slag on the rheology of fresh self- compacted concrete,” Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 23, (7), pp. 2593-2598, 2009.
A. Nazari, S. Riahi, “The effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on physical, thermal and mechanical properties of concrete using ground granulated blast furnace slag as binder,” Journal of Material Scince and Engineering, A 528 (4-5), pp. 2085-2092, 2011.
E. Vejmelková, M. Keppert, S. Grzeszczyk, B. Skaliński, R. Černýa, “Properties of self-compacting concrete mixtures containing metakaolin and blast furnace slag,” Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 25(3), pp. 1325-1331, 2011.
C. Li, H. Sun, L. Li, “A review: The comparison between alkali-activated slag (Si+Ca) and metakaolin (Si+Al) cements,” Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, 40(9), pp. 1341-1349, 2010.
W. Mozgawa, J. Deja, "Spectroscopic studies of alkaline activated slag geopolymers," Journal of Molecular Structure, 924–926, pp. 434–441, 2009.
J.E. Oh, P.J.M. Monteiro, S.S. Jun, S. Choi, and S.M. Clark, “The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers,” Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, 40 (2), pp. 189-196, 2010.
J. Temuujin, W. Rickard, M. Lee, A. Riessen, “Preparation and thermal properties of fire resistant metakaolin-based geopolymer-type coatings,” Journal Non-Crystalline Solid, 357(5), pp. 1399-1404, 2010.
Z. Zhang, , X. Yao, and H. Zhu, “Potential application of geopolymers asprotection coatings for marine concrete: I. Basic properties,” Applied Clay Science, 49(1-2), pp. 1-6, 2010.
S. Abd.El.Aleem, M. Heikal, W.M. Morsi “Hydration characteristic, thermal expansion and microstructure of cement containing nano-silica”, Constr. Build. Mater.; 59, 2014, 151–160.
M. Heikal, S. Abd El-Aleem, and W.M. Morsi, “Characteristics of blended cement containing ano-silica”, HBRC Journal (9) (2013), pp. 243–255.
M.A. Abd-El.Aziz, S. Abd.El.Aleem, and M. Heikal “Physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics of pozzolanic cement pastes and mortars hydrated at different curing temperatures” Constr. Build. Mater., 26; (2012), pp. 310–316.
J.G.S. van Jaarsveld, J.S.J. Van Deventer, “Effect of the alkali metal activator on the properties of fly ash-based geopolymers,” Industerial. Engneering Chemical Research, 38(10), pp. 3932- 3941, 1999.
H. Xu, J.S.J. Van Deventer, “The geopolymerisation of alumino- silicate minerals,” International. Journal of Mineral Processing, 59 (3), pp. 247-266, 2000.
] H. El Didamony, H.H. Assal, T.M. El Sokkary, H.A. Abdel Gawwad, "Physico-chemical properties of alkali activated slag pastes," Journal of Housing and Bulding Research. Center, 6, pp. 47-55, 2010.
H. El-Didamony, A.A. Amer, H. Abd El-Aziz, "Properties and durability of alkali-activated slag pastes immersed in sea water," Journal of Ceramic International, 38, pp. 3773–3780, 2012.
A.R. Brough, M. Holloway, J. Sykes, A. Atkinson “Sodium silicate-based alkali-activated slag mortars: Part II. The retarding effect of additions of sodium chloride or malic acid,” Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, 30 (9), pp. 1375-1379, 2000.
Tzong-Ruey Yang, Ta-Peng Chang, Bo-Tsun, Shih Chen, Jeng-Ywan, and Wei-Lun Lin, "Effect of alkaline solutions on engineering properties of alkali-activated ggbfs paste," Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 20, (3), pp. 311-318, 2012.
J.L. Provis, J.S.J vanDeventer, "Geopolymers: Structures, processing, properties and industrial applications," Accelerated ageing of geopolymers, Woodhead Publishing, Abingdon UK, pp. 139-166, 2009.
J.L. Provis, J.S.J van Deventer, "Geopolymers: Structures, processing, properties and industrial applications," Geopolymer synthesis and kinetics, Woodhead Publishing, Abingdon UK, pp. 118-136, 2009.
V. Räsänen, V. Penttala, "The pH measurement of concrete and smoothing mortar using a concrete powder suspension," Journal Cement and Concrete Research, 34 (5), pp. 813–820, 2004.
ASTM C109M, "Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars," 2012.
J. Davidovits, "Geopolymer chemistry and applications,", Calcium based geopolymer, Saint Quentin, France: Geopolymer Institute, 3rd edition, pp. 201-244, 2011.
Caijun Shi, V. Pavel Krivenko, Della Roy, "Alkali-Activated slag cement and concrete," Hydration and microstructure, Taylor & Francis, USA, pp. 64-105, 2006.
T. Bakharev, , J.G. Sanjayanand, Y.B. Cheng, “Sulfate Attack on Alkali Activated Slag Concrete,” Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, 32, pp. 211–216, 2002.
J. Davidovits, (2011b), "Geopolymer chemistry and applications," Rock based geopolymer, Saint Quentin, France: Geopolymer Institute, 3rd edition, pp. 245-261, 2011.
S.A. Bernal, E.D. Rodriguez, R. de Guierrez Mejia, M. Gordillo, J. Provis, "Mechanical and thermal characterisation of geopolymers based on silicate-activated metakaolin/slag blends," Journal of Material Scince, 46 (16), pp. 5477-5486, 2011.
A. Katovic, B. Subotic, I. Smit, L.A. Despotovic, "Crystallization of tetragonal (B8) and cubic (B1) modifications of zeolite NaP from freshly prepared gel. Part I. Mechanism of crystallization," Journal of Zeolites, 9, pp. 45-53, 1989.