Woody Species Diversity and Composition of Dry Woodland Vegetation in West Shewa, Central Ethiopia: Implications for Their Sustainable Management
American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry
Volume 7, Issue 6, November 2019, Pages: 282-289
Received: Aug. 31, 2019; Accepted: Oct. 4, 2019; Published: Nov. 15, 2019
Views 512      Downloads 186
Gadisa Demie, Department of Forestry, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The dry land forest of Ethiopia possesses diverse tree species that are known for their ecological and economic values. Despite growing recognition of environmental and economic benefits of these species, the woodland harbouring these species is degrading. Adequate knowledge on the resource base including the current status of its population is crucial for sustainable management of the forest resource. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the diversity and composition of woody species in Kara dry lands forest. A total of 90 quadrants were established along transect lines. A 400 m2 quadrants was used, distance between quadrants and transecting lines were 200 m and 500 m respectively. Species diversity and evenness, density, frequency, important value and regeneration status were assessed. This study reveals total of 48 woody species representing 23 families and 31 genera’s were found. Out of that, 13 woody species were identified as gum and resin bearing species. The genus of Commiphora and Acacia species were found to be the dominant gum and resin bearing species at the study area. Diversity of the entire woody species assemblage and of the gum- and resin-bearing species was H= 3.47 and H= 2.3 respectively. The evenness values of entire and gum and resin producing woody species were 0.67 and 0.77 respectively. The gum and resin producing woody species accounted for 44.56% of the density, 49.87% of the basal area and 45.49% of the Importance Value Index. However, we recorded the declining natural regeneration of most gum- and resin-bearing woody species except for a small number of species, which exhibited signs of healthy populations. Generally, the results of the present study highlighted the absence of conservation actions that will probably be subject to a progressive decline of gum and resin bearing species because of uncontrolled grazing, charcoal production and shifting cultivation. Therefore, proper management plan and domestication of the species through artificial regeneration and area closure are urgently needed.
Composition, Diversity, Importance Value Index, Woody Species, Woodland
To cite this article
Gadisa Demie, Woody Species Diversity and Composition of Dry Woodland Vegetation in West Shewa, Central Ethiopia: Implications for Their Sustainable Management, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. Vol. 7, No. 6, 2019, pp. 282-289. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20190706.16
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Eshete, A., Sterck, F., Bongers, F. 2011. Diversity and production of Ethiopian dry woodlands explained by climate and soil stress gradients. Forest Ecol. Manage. 261: 1499-1509.
Lemenih, M., Kassa, H. (eds). 2011. Opportunities and challenges for sustainable production and marketing of gums and resins in Ethiopia. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research, p. 105.
Adem, M., Worku A, Lemenih, M., Tadesse, W., Pretzsch, J. 2014. Diversity, regeneration status and population structure of gum- andresin-bearing woody species in south Omo zone, southern Ethiopia. Journal of Forestry Research 25 (2): 319-328 DOI 10.1007/s11676-014-0461-2.
Worku, A., Lemenih, M., Fetene, M., Teketay, D. 2011a. Socio-economic importance of gum and resin resource in the dry woodlands of Borana Southern Ethiopia. Forest, Trees and Livelihood Journal, 20: 137–156.
Lemenih, M., Abebe, T., Mats, O. 2003. Gum and Resin resources from some Acacia, Boswellia, and Commiphora species and their economic contributions in Liban, South-East Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments, 55: 465–482.
Eshete, A., Teketay, D & Hulten, H. 2005. The socio-economic importance and status of populations of Boswelliapapyrifera (Del.) Hochst. In Northern Ethiopia: the case of North Gonder Zone. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 15: 55–74.
Lemenih, M., Feleke, S., Tadesse, W. 2007. Constraints to small holders production of frankincense in Metema District, North-Western Ethiopia. Journalof Arid Environment,71: 393–403.
Worku, A., Teketay, D., Lemenih, M., Fetene M. 2012. Diversity, regeneration status, and population structures of gum- and resin-producing woody species in Borana, Southern Ethiopia. J Forests Trees Livelihoods First article: 1–12. doi: 10.1080/14728028.2012.716993.
Lemenih, M., Bongers, F. 2011. Dry forests of Ethiopia and their silviculture. In: Gunter S, Weber M, Stimm B, Mosandi R, editors. Silviculture in the Tropics, Tropical Forestry. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Teketay, D. 2004–2005. Causes and consequences of dry land forest degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Walia. 24: 3–20.
Rahmato, D. 2011. Land to investor: large-scale land transfers in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Forum for Social Studies.
Gebrehiwot, K., Muys, B., Haile, M., Mitloehner, R. 2002. Boswelliapapyrifera (Del.) Hochst: a tropical key species in northern Ethiopia. Presented in Conference “International Agricultural Research for Development” held on October 9-11, Witzenhausen, Germany.
Tadesse, W., Mbogga, M. 2004. Conservation of genetic resources of non timber forest products of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Solomon, Gebreyowhans. 2015. Community perception on rangeland degradation: a case study in two differently settled areas of northern Ethiopia. J. Agricult. Res. Dev. 5 (1).
Teshome, Abate, Abule, Ebro, Lisanework, Nigatu. 2009. Pastoralist’s perceptions and rangeland evaluation for livestock production in South Eastern Ethiopia. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 21 (7).
Magurran, A. 1988. Ecological diversity and its measurement. Croom Helm, London: Chapman and Hall.
Kent, M., Coker, P. 1992. Vegetation description and analysis. A practical approach. London (UK): John Wiley & Sons.
Atsbha, T., Belayneh, D. A., Zewdu, Tessema. 2019. Woody species diversity, population structure, and regeneration status in the Gra-Kahsu natural vegetation, southern Tigray of Ethiopia. Heliyon 5 e01120. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01120.
Feyisa Tadese, S., Terfa Mamo, A. 2016. Diversity and regeneration status of gum and resin bearing woody species in Gambella low land, southwest Ethiopia. World Journal of Pharmaceutical SciencesVol. 2, Issue 4, 13-32.
Yilmaa, Z., Workua, A, Mohammeda, O., Girma, A., Dejenea, T., Eshetea, A., Teketay, D., Teshome, M., Tadesse, W.2015. Status of populations of gum and resin bearing and associated woodyspecies in Benishangul-Gumuz National Regional State, western Ethiopia: implications for their sustainable management. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods.
Urban, D., Miller, C., Halpin, P., Stephenson, N. 2000. Forest gradient response in Sierran landscapes: the physical template. Landscape Ecology 15: 603–620.
Chen, J., Song, B., Rudnicki, M., Moeur, M., Bible, K., North, M., Shaw, DC., Franklin, JF., Braun, DM. 2003. Spatial relationship of biomass and species distribution in an old-growth Pseudotsuga - Tsuga Forest. Forest Science 50: 364-375.
Dibaba, A., Soromessa, T., Kelbessa, E., Tilahun, A. 2014. Diversity, Structure and Regeneration Status of the Woodland and Riverine Vegetation of Sire Beggo in Gololcha District, Eastern Ethiopia. MEJS, 6: 70-96.
Zegeye, H., Teketay, D., Kelbessa, E. 2011. Diversity and regeneration status of woody species in Tara Gedam and Abebaye forests, northwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Forestry Research 22 (3): 315-328.
Adamu, A., Bekele, T., Dalle, G. 2012. Floristic diversity, regeneration status, and vegetation structure of woodlands in Metema area, Amhara national regional state, Northwestern Ethiopia. J Forestry Res. 23: 391–398. doi: 10.1007/s11676-012-0275-z.
Whittaker, RJ., Willis, KJ., Field, R. 2003. Climatic–energetic explanations of diversity: a macroscopic perspective. In: Macroecology: concepts and consequences, pp. 107-129, (Blackburn, T. M. & Gaston, J. K. eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Premavani, D., NAIDU, M. T., Venkaiah, M. 2014. Tree species diversity and population structure in the tropical forests of north central Eastern Ghats, India. Not. Sci. Biol. 6 (4), 448e453.
Shibru, S., Balcha, G. 2004. Composition, structure and regeneration status of woody species in Dindin natural forest, southeast Ethiopia: An Implication for conservation. Ethiopian Journal of Biological science, 2004; 2: 31-48. Addis Ababa.
Akwee, PE., Palapala, VA., Gweyi-Onyango, JP. 2010. A comparative study of plant species composition of grasslands in Saiwa Swamp National Park and Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Journal of Biodiversity 2: 77–83.
Lamprecht, H. 1989. Silviculture in the tropics: tropical forest ecosystems andtheir tree species – Possibilities and methods for their long-term utilization. Berlin Germany: Deutsche GesellschaftfurTechnischeZusammenarbeit, 296.
Shibru, S. 2002. Inventory of Woody Species in Dindin Forest, Technical Report No. 01. IBCR/GTZ/FGRCP, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Anteneh, Belayneh, Bekele, Tamrat, Demissew, Sebsebe. 2011. The natural vegetation of Babile elephant sanctuary, eastern Ethiopia: implications for biodiversity conservation. Ethiop. J. Biol. Sci. 10 (2), 137e152.
Temesgen, Mekonen, Ayele, Belayneh, Ashagrie, Yeshanew. 2015. Woody plant species diversity, structure and regeneration status of Woynwuha natural forest, North West Ethiopia. Asian J. Ethno Pharmacol. Med. Foods 01 (01), 3e15.
Aliyi, K., Hundera, K., Dalle, G. 2015. Floristic Composition, Vegetation Structure and Regeneration Status of Kimphe Lafa Natural Forest, OromiaRegional State, West Arsi, Ethiopia,” Research & Reviews: Journal of Life Sciences, pp. 19–32.
Chowdhury, B., Hossain, M. K., Hossain, M. A., & Khan, B. M. 2018. Native tree species diversity of Rampaharnatural forest reserve in Rangamati South forest division, Bangladesh. Ceylon Journal of Science, 47 (2), 129–136.
Khamis, MA. 2001. Managment of Boswelliapapyrifera stands for resin production in Jebel Marra Area, Western Sudan. Present situation and future prospects. MSc Thesis. TechnischeUniversitat Dresden, Germany.
Bantihun, A., Tesema, Dr. T. 2018. Regeneration Status of Acacia Polyacantha and Boswellia Papyrifera Species in Shimelegir Forest, Jawi District, Ethiopia. J Biodivers Endanger Species 6: 008. doi: 10.4172/2332-2543.S2-008.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186