American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry
Volume 6, Issue 5, September 2018, Pages: 111-121
Received: Jul. 24, 2018;
Accepted: Aug. 9, 2018;
Published: Sep. 6, 2018
Views 1272 Downloads 105
Johnson Godlove Mtama, Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute: TARI – Uyole, Mbeya, Tanzania
Balthazar Michael Msanya, Department of Soil and Geological Sciences, College of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Charles Lee Burras, Agronomy Department, Iowa State University, Ames, USA
To study the soils of Southern Highland Zone of Tanzania, four representative pedons of some landscapes were characterized. Their names and identifiers are Seatondale, Mbimba, Inyala, and Uyole, respectively TzSea 01, TzMb 02, TzIny 03, and TzUy04. The pedons were formed from the weathering of among other materials, colluvial igneous rocks, alluvium, eluvial soils, laterite, lacustrine sands and silts, andesite, pumice, aeolian deposits, and metamorphic rocks including coarse grained and strongly foliated biotite gneisses. Twenty soil samples were taken for laboratory characterization. In addition to classical horizon by horizon descriptions and laboratory analyses, 12 core samples were taken for soil-water retention characterization. The available water holding capacity was rated as very low to low. Pedon descriptions and particle size analysis showed clay eluviation-illuviation was the predominant pedogenic process in all pedons. Soil pH was rated slightly acidic to slightly alkaline. Available P ranged from 0.71 mg/kg at Mbimba to 10.67 mg/kg at Seatondale. Exchangeable bases were variable across and within the profiles; at Uyole and Inyala they were high, while at Seatondale and Mbimba they were low and medium. Values of exchangeable bases showed decreasing trends with profile depths in all sites. C/N ratios ranged between 6 and 18, total nitrogen was rated very low to low in both A and B horizons. CECsoil ranged between 17.2 and 36.4 cmol (+)/kg. Organic carbon ranged from very low to high. The soils apparently developed from extreme and moderate weathering of parent materials. According to the USDA Soil Taxonomy, the pedons classified as Fine, Illitic, Active, Isothermic Typic Hapludult; Fine, Illitic, Active, Isothermic Andic Paleudalf; Fine, Illitic, Active, Isothermic, Mollic Paleudalf; Pumiceous, Mixed, Superactive, Isothermic, Typic Hapludand for Seatondale, Mbimba, Inyala, and Uyole, respectively. The soil depths were deep and very deep. Moisture stress and low levels of some macro-elements highly limited the productivity of the soils.
Johnson Godlove Mtama,
Balthazar Michael Msanya,
Charles Lee Burras,
Pedology at Four Representative Sites of Southern Highland Zone of Tanzania, American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry.
Vol. 6, No. 5,
2018, pp. 111-121.
Brekke, K. A., Iversen, V. and Aune, J. B. (1999). Tanzania's soil wealth. Environment and Development Economics 4: 333-356.
United Republic of Tanzania (2006). National adaptation programme of action. https://www.google.co.tz/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=lmU4VobwGITL0wWh76UY#q=national+adaptation+programme+of+action+tanzania (Retrieved August 12, 2015).
Msanya, B. M., Magoggo, J. P. and Otsuka, H. (2002). Development of soil surveys in Tanzania. Pedologist 46:79-88.
Szilas, C., Møberg, J. P., Borggaard, O. K. and Semoka J. M. (2005). Mineralogy of characteristic well-drained soils of sub-humid to humid Tanzania. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B- Soil and Plant Science 55: 241-251.
Survey and Mapping Division (1983). Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development. Topographic map of Iringa. Scale of 1:50 000. Sheet 215/3. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Geological Survey Department (1962). Geological map of Iringa, at scale 1:125:000, QDS 215. Geological Survey of Tanganyika. Dodoma, Tanzania.
Schoeneberger, P. J., Wysocki, D. A., Benham, E. C. and Soil Survey Staff (2012). Field book of describing and sampling soils, Version 3.0. Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, NE.
Soil Survey Staff (1999). Soil Taxonomy. A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. Agricultural Handbook 436, Natural Resources Conservation Service, USDA, Washington DC, USA, 869 pp.
Black, G. R. and Hartge, K. H. (1986). Bulk density. In: A. Klute (Ed.). Methods of soil analysis, Part 1 (2nd Ed). Agronomy Monograph No. 9. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. pp. 364-376.
National Soil Service (1990). Laboratory procedures for routine analysis, 3rd edition. Agricultural Research Institue. Mlingano Tanga, Tanzania. 212 pp.
Mclean, E. O. (1986). Soil pH and lime requirement. In: L. A. Page, R. H. Miller, and D. R. Keeney (Eds.) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2 (2nd Ed.) Agronomy Monograph No. 9. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. p. 199-223.
Fieldes, M. and Perrot, K. W. (1966). The nature of allophane in soils. I. Significance of randomness in pedogenesis. New Zealand Journal of Science 9:622-632.
Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L. E. (1982). Total organic carbon. In: L. A. Page, R. H. Miller, and D. R. Keeney (Eds.) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2 (2nd Ed.) Agronomy Monograph No. 9. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. pp. 539-579.
Duursma, E. K. and Dawson, R. (1981). Marine organic chemistry: Evolution, composition, interactions, and chemistry of organic matter in seawater. Elsevier, New York. 521 pp.
Bremmer, J. M and Mulvaney, C. S. (1982). Total nitrogen. In: L. A. Page, R. H. Miller, and D. R. Keeney (Eds.) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2 (2nd Ed.) Agronomy Monograph No. 9. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. pp. 595-624.
Bray, R. H. and Kurtz, L. T. (1945). Determination of total, organic and available forms of phosphorus in soil. Soil Science 58: 39-45.
Murphy, J. and Riley, J. P. (1962). A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27:31-36.
Watanabe, F. S. and Olsen, S. R. (1965). Test of an ascorbic acid method for determining phosphorus in Central Illinois: Midwest Friends of the Pleistocene 26th Field Conf., Campaign, IL, Illinois Geol. Surv. Guidebook 13:129-134.
Chapman, H. D. 1965. Cation Exchange Capacity. In: C. A. Black (Ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Agronomy Monograph No. 9. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.891. 901 pp.
Thomas, G. W. (1982). Exchangeable cations. In: L. A. Page, R. H. Miller, and D. R. Keeney (Eds.) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2 (2nd Ed.) Agronomy Monograph No. 9. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI. pp 595-624.
Mbaga, H. R., Msanya, B. M. and Mrema, J. P. (2017). Pedological characterization of typical soil of Dakawa Irrigation Scheme, Mvomero District, Morogoro Region, Tanzania. International Journal of Current Research Biosciences and Plant Biology 4 (6):77-86.
Moberg, J. P. (2000). Soil and plant analysis manual. The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University Chemistry Department, Copenhagen, Denmark. 133 pp.
Landon, J. R. (1991). Booker tropical soil manual. A handbook for soil survey and agricultural land evaluation in Tropics and Subtropics. John Wiley, New York. 474 pp.
Msanya, B. M., Otsuka, H., Araki, S. and Fujitake, N. (2007). Characterization of volcanic ash soils in southwestern Tanzania: Morphology, physicochemical properties, and classification. African Study Monographs, Suppl. 34: 39-55.
Berryman, C. and Eavis, B. (1984). CH. 6, Soil physics. P.58-105. In: J. R. London (Ed). Booker Tropical Soil Manual. Booker Agric. Intl. Ltd., London.
Young, A. (1976). Tropical soils and soil survey. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 468 pp.
Baize, D. 1993. Soil science analysis. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 192 pp.
Kalala, A. M., Msanya, B. M., Amuri, N. A. and Semoka, J. M. (2017). Pedological characterization of some typical alluvial soils of Kilombero District, Tanzania. American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 5 (1):1-11.
Massawe, I. K., Msanya, B. M. and Rwehumbiza, F. B. (2017). Pedological characterization and fertility evaluation of paddy soils of Mvumi village, Kilosa District, Tanzania. International Journal of Current Research Biosciences and Plant Biology 4 (4):49-60.
Uwingabire, S., Msanya, B. M., Mtakwa, P. W., Uwitonze, P. and Sirikare, S. N. (2016). Pedological characterization of soils developed on gneissic - Granites in the Congo Nile watershed divide and central plateau zones, Rwanda. International Journal of Current Research 8 (09):39489-39501.
Soil Survey Staff (2014). Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 12th Edition. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 360 pp.
World Reference Base for Soil Resources (2006). First update 2007. FAO: Rome Available at: www. fao. org.
Karuma, A. N., Gachene, C., Msanya, B. M., Mtakwa, P. W., Amuri, N. and Gicheru, P. T. (2014). Soil morphology, physico-chemical properties and classification of typical soils of Mwala District, Kenya. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 4 (2):156 - 170.
Uwitonze, P., Msanya, B. M., Mtakwa, P. W., Uwingabire, S. and Sirikare, S. (2016). Pedological characterization of soils developed from volcanic parent materials of Northern Province of Rwanda. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 5 (6):225-236.
Kebeney, S. J., Msanya, B. M., Ng’etich, W. K., Semoka, J. M. and Serrem, C. K. (2014). Pedological characterization of some typical soils of Busia County, Western Kenya: Soil morphology, physico-chemical properties, classification and fertility trends. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 4 (1): 29 - 44.
Tenga, J. J., Msanya, B. M., Semoka, J. M., Semu, E. and Mwango, S. B. (2018). Pedological Characterization and Classification of Some Typical Soils in Three Agro-Ecological Settings of South-Eastern Tanzania. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 9 (2):692 - 702.