Epidemic Characteristics of Foot and Mouth Disease on the Buffaloes and Cows in Lang Son Province, Vietnam
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2016, Pages: 62-71
Received: Aug. 25, 2016;
Published: Aug. 25, 2016
Views 3250 Downloads 112
Dang Xuan Binh, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, Vietnam
Dam Thi Phuong Mai, Sub Department of Animal Health, Lang Son Province, Vietnam
From 2011 to 2015, in Lang Son province, Vietnam, foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurred in 11 districts and town. The virus causing FMD on the cattle in Lang Son belonged to type O and type A. While type Asia 1 virus had occurred in some other provinces in Vietnam, it was not found in Lang Son. FMD epidemic in Lang Son province had no regularity. In one district, the epidemic occurred continuously in two or three years (e.g. in Binh Gia and Van Quan districts) while in some others, it occurred only once (e.g. Cao Loc district and Lang Son city). On average, 1.26% of the buffaloes and cows were infected with FMD per year. Precisely, 1.39% of the buffaloes and 0.75% of the cows were infected. FMD on the buffaloes and cows in Lang Son was under the influence of (i) the weather and climate conditions (especially the years with extremely cold winter), (ii) the seasonal agricultural practice in the locality (during the time of the year when the cattle were used for ploughing and pulling carts for the crops, their health was relatively declined), and (iii) the results of vaccination in early Autumn – Winter season (the smaller the number of cattle vaccinated, the higher the number of cattle infected). These influences were clearly observed in 2011 with the highest number of cattle infected (8,929 infected cattle, accounting for 5.3% of the herds, whereas the average rate of infection in the whole five studied years was 1.26%). The sources of FMD were identified as mainly came from the infected cattle which had been medically treated and clear of the symptoms, yet still carried and shed the virus to the environment. On average, the rate of natural virus infection on the cattle in Lang Son was 33.23%. Of which, the rate was highest in the following districts: Bac Son (66.66%), Van Quan (50%), Trang Dinh (32.88%) and Binh Gia (28.57%). After being injected with FMD vaccine (Aftovax Bivalent, with 2 types of O and A), 100% of the cattle had immune response. 30 days after vaccination, the rate of protection varied from 86.6% to 100%. Six months after the first vaccination shot, a second one must be done for the vaccination to be effective.
Dang Xuan Binh,
Dam Thi Phuong Mai,
Epidemic Characteristics of Foot and Mouth Disease on the Buffaloes and Cows in Lang Son Province, Vietnam, Animal and Veterinary Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2016, pp. 62-71.
Anh B. Q, Nam H. V (2001). Foot and Mouth Disease in Southeast Asia. Journal of Veterinaty Science and Technology 8, 90-93.
Alexandersen, S., Z. Zhang, A. I. Donaldson, and A. J. Garland (2003). The pathogenesis and diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease. J. Comp. Pathol. 129: 1-36.
Araujo, J. P., Jr., H. J. Montassier, and A. A. Pinto (2002). Extensive antigenic and genetic variation among foot-and-mouth disease type A viruses isolated from the 1994 and 1995 foci in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vet. Microbiol. 84: 15-27.
Barend M. de C. Bronsvoort, Ian G. Handel, Charles K. Nfon, Karl-Johan Sørensen, Viviana Malirat, Ingrid Bergmann, Vincent N. Tanya, and Kenton L. Morgan (2016). Redefining the “carrier” state for foot-and-mouth disease from the dynamics of virus persistence in endemically affected cattle populations. Sci Rep. 2016; 6: 29059.
Benvenisti, L., A. Rogel, L. Kuznetzova, S. Bujanover, Y. Becker, and Y. Stram (2001). Gene gun-mediated DNA vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease virus. Vaccine 19: 3885-3895.
Bergmann, I. E., P. A. de Mello, E. Neitzert, E. Beck, and I. Gomes (1993). Diagnosis of persistent aphthovirus infection and its differentiation from vaccination response in cattle by use of enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot analysis with bioengineered nonstructural viral antigens. Am. J. Vet. Res. 54: 825-831.
Bergmann, I. E., V. Malirat, E. Neitzert, E. Beck, N. Panizzuti, C. Sanchez, and A. Falczuk (2000). Improvement of a serodiagnostic strategy for foot-and-mouth disease virus surveillance in cattle under systematic vaccination: a combined system of an indirect ELISA 3ABC with an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay. Arch. Virol. 145: 473-489.
Berinstein, A., C. Tami, O. Taboga, E. Smitsaart, and E. Carrillo (2000). Protective immunity against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by a recombinant vaccinia virus. Vaccine 18: 2231-2238.
Chuc H. D, Long N. T (2003). Detection of buffaloes and cows with FMD using ELISA CHEKIT - FMD - 3ABC kits. Journal of Veterinaty Science and Technology 10, 14-16.
Condy, J. B., R. S. Hedger, C. Hamblin, and I. T. Barnett (1985). The duration of the foot-and-mouth disease virus carrier state in African buffalo (i) in the individual animal and (ii) in a free-living herd. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 8: 259-265.
Dzung N. T (2000). Foot and Mouth Disease. Journal of Veterinaty Science and Technology 7, 8-16.
Hemadri, D., C. Tosh, R. Venkataramanan, A. Sanyal, A. R. Samuel, N. J. Knowles, and R. P. Kitching (2000). Genetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O isolates responsible for field outbreaks in India between 1993 and 1999. Epidemiol. Infect. 125: 729-736.
Knowles, N. J., and A. R. Samuel (2003). Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virus Res. 91: 65-80.
Knowles, N. J., A. R. Samuel, P. R. Davies, R. P. Kitching, and A. I. Donaldson (2001). Outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in the UK caused by a pandemic strain. Vet. Rec. 148: 258-259.
Marquardt, O., O. C. Straub, R. Ahl, and B. Haas (1995). Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus in nasal swabs of asymptomatic cattle by RT-PCR within 24 hours. J. Virol. Methods 53: 255-261.
Mayr, G. A., V. O'Donnell, J. Chinsangaram, P. W. Mason, and M. J. Grubman (2001). Immune responses and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) challenge in swine vaccinated with adenovirus-FMDV constructs. Vaccine 19: 2152-2162.
OIE (2016). Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals 2016. Foot and mouth disease (Version adopted in May 2012).
Report on animal health in Vietnam 2014, 2015. DAH.
Reid, S. M., Ferris, N. P., Hutchings, G. H., Samuel, A. R., Knowles, N. J (2000a). Primary diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. J. Virol. Methods 89, 167-176.
Sabenzia Nabalayo Wekesa, Abraham Kiprotich Sangula, Graham J Belsham, Kirsten Tjornehoj Vincent B Muwanika, Francis Gakuya, Dominic Mijele and Hans Redlef Siegismund (2015). Characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle in Kenya is consistent with independent virus populations. BMC Veterinary Research 2015 11: 17.
Scott M. Reid, Katja Ebert, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Carrie Batten, Anna Sanders, Caroline Wright, Andrew E. Shaw, Eoin D. Ryan, Geoffrey H. Hutchings, Nigel P. Ferris, David J. Paton, Donald P. King (2009). Performance of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Foot-and-mouth disease virus during field outbreaks in the United Kingdom in 2007. J Vet Diagn Invest 21: 321–330 (2009).