A Study on the Prevalence and Virulence of Avian Influenza A (H5N1, H5N6 and H7N9) Viruses on Poultry at Lang Son Markets in Vietnam
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2016, Pages: 52-61
Received: Aug. 25, 2016;
Published: Aug. 25, 2016
Views 3105 Downloads 103
Dang Xuan Binh, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry, Thai Nguyen City, Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Thu Ha, Sub Department of Animal Health, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Lang Son City, Lang Son Province, Vietnam
In 2014 and 2015, composite cloacal and tracheal swab samples of poultry sold at markets in Lang Son province (Vietnam) were collected in order to examine the circulation of avian influenza A (H5N1, H5N6 and H7N9) viruses. The results show that: (i) for the chicken illegally imported from China, 3.93% to 6.43% of the chickens were found positive with type A, 3.18% to 3.78% were positive with subtype H5, and 0.37% to 3.40% were positive with subtype N1 viruses; (ii) for the chicken sold at local markets, 15.55% were found positive with type A, 5% were positive with subtype H5, and 2.77% were positive with subtype N1 viruses; (iii) for the chicken sold at the border markets, 13.49% were positive with type A, 4.76% were positive with subtype H5, and 3.96% were positive with subtype N1 viruses; (iv) for the chicken and ducks sold at the border markets with avian influenza A viruses (H5N6), 10.4% to 36.1% were positive with type A; 4.1% to 6.25% were positive with subtype H5; and 2.3% to 6.25% were found positive with subtype N6 viruses; (v) subtype H7N9 were not prevalent on the poultry sold at the border and local markets; and (vi) laboratory chicken for testing IVPI (Intravenous Pathogenicity Index) showed symptoms of sickness and died within one to two days after infected with H5N1 and H5N6 viruses. The IVPI ranged from 2.9 to 2.92. This shows that the avian influenza virus strains isolated in Lang Son were highly virulent (HPAI).
Dang Xuan Binh,
Nguyen Thi Thu Ha,
A Study on the Prevalence and Virulence of Avian Influenza A (H5N1, H5N6 and H7N9) Viruses on Poultry at Lang Son Markets in Vietnam, Animal and Veterinary Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2016, pp. 52-61.
Beuy Joob, Wiwanitkit Viroj (2016). H5N6 influenza viruses infection, the newest influenza. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. Volume 5, Issue 6, June 2015, Pages 434-437.
Bui Q. A, Van D. K (2004). Avian influenza viruses diseases: Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Control. Journal of Animal Health Science and Technology, (3), pages 69-75.
Cowling BJ, Jin L, Lau EH, Liao Q, Wu P, Jiang H, Comparative epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in China: a population-based study of laboratory-confirmed cases. Lancet. 2013; 382: 129-37.
Dung N. T (2008), Some characteristics of avian influenza viruses H5N1, Journal of Animal Health Science and Technology, (4), pages 80-86.
Han J, Liu J, Wang L, Zhang P, Liu G, Lan K (2014). Persistent detection of avian influenza A/H7N9 virus among poultry in Huzhou City, China, in the summer of 2013. Int J Infect Dis. 2014; 26: 72-5.
Leung YH, Lau EH, Zhang LJ, Guan Y, Cowling BJ, Peiris JS (2012). Avian influenza and ban on overnight poultry storage in live poultry markets, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012; 18: 1339-41.
Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood, Jenny Pfeiffer, To L. T, Tung N and David Suarez (2008). Virulence level of the highly virulent avian influenza viruses H5N1 chicken and ducks in Vietnam, International Conference on Studying for Policy Development for avian influenza viruses prevention and control, Department of Animal Health, 2008.
Monne I, Fusaro A, Nelson MI, Bonfanti L, Mulatti P, Hughes J (2014). Emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from a low-pathogenic progenitor. J Virol. 2014; 88: 4375-88.
Kosuke Okuya, Toshiko Kawabata, Kiori Nagano, Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara, Isamu Kusumoto, Kozo Takase, Makoto Ozawa (2015). Isolation and characterization of influenza A viruses from environmental water at an overwintering site of migratory birds in Japan. Archives of Virology. Volume 160, Issue 12, pp 3037-3052.
Office International des Epizootics (OIE), 2014.
Pantin-Jackwood MJ, Miller PJ, Spackman E, Swayne DE, Susta L, Costa-Hurtado M (2014). Role of poultry in the spread of novel H7N9 influenza virus in China. J Virol. 2014; 88: 5381–90.
Shankar B. P, R. N. S. Gowda, B. H. Manjunath Prabhu, B. Pattnaik, S. Nagarajan, S. S. Patil and H. K. Pradhan (2009). Assessment of Pathogenic Potential of Two Indian H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian influenza Viruses Isolates by Intravenous Pathogenicity Index Test. International Journal of Poultry Science 8 (3): 283-290.
Vries, E., H. Guo, M. Dai, P. J. Rottier, F. J. van Kuppeveld and C. A. de Haan (2015). Rapid Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian influenza Subtypes from a Subtype H5N1 Hemagglutinin Variant. Emerg Infect Dis 21 (5): 842-846.
Jun Yuan, Eric H. Y. Lau, Kuibiao Li, Y. H. Connie Leung, Zhicong Yang, Caojun Xie, Yufei Liu, Yanhui Liu, Xiaowei Ma, Jianping Liu, Xiaoquan Li, Kuncai Chen, Lei Luo, Biao Di, Benjamin J. Cowling, Xiaoping Tang, Gabriel M. Leung, Ming Wang, and Myoung-don Oh (2014). Effect of Live Poultry Market Closure on Avian influenza A (H7N9) Viruses Activity in Guangzhou, China, 2014. Volume 21, Number 10. October 2015.
Wang X, Fang S, Lu X, Xu C, Cowling BJ, Tang X (2014). Seroprevalence to avian influenza A (H7N9) virus among poultry workers and the general population in southern China: a longitudinal study. Clin Infect Dis. 2014; 59: e76-83.
WHO (2015). Risk assessment of Human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) viruses. Summary of surveillance and investigation findings. 23 February 2015.