Investigation of Mycoplasma agalactiae by Molecular Methods in Goat Bucks in West of Iran
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 218-222
Received: Dec. 6, 2014; Accepted: Dec. 23, 2014; Published: Dec. 31, 2014
Views 2569      Downloads 111
Authors
Mohammad Khezri, Department of Veterinary, Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Kurdistan, Iran
Seyed Ali Pourbakhsh, Mycoplasma Reference Laboratory, Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute, Alborz, Iran
Abbas Ashtari, Mycoplasma Reference Laboratory, Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute, Alborz, Iran
Babak Rokhzad, Department of Veterinary, Kurdistan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Kurdistan, Iran
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
The presence of asymptomatic carriers of Mycoplasma agalactiae in goat buck populations, and the internal presence of this microorganism in some of these animals, indicated that the ability of this micro-organism captive in contagious agalactiae to colonize in other locations such as the respiratory system or genitalia. This study was designed to detect the excretion Mycoplasma agalactiae in goat bucks reared in Iran, where the disease is considered endemic. A total of 196 samples which included semen (n=49), conjunctiva (n=49), nasal (n=49) and ear (n=49) of goat bucks were collected from July to September 2013. To avoid the introduction of goat bucks carrying Mycoplasma organisms sub clinically in samples were obtained from all candidate goat bucks for PCR, to detect the presence of Mycoplasma agalactiae. Of the samples tested, 31.12% were scored positive for Mycoplasma spp. and Mycoplasma agalactiae was detected in seventeen samples, conjunctival (6 positive sample), nasal (1 positive sample), ear (5 positive sample) and semen (5 positive sample). The results obtained in the present study confirm of Mycoplasma agalactiae in the semen, conjunctival, nasal and ear in goat bucks without clinical symptoms of contagious agalactiae infection. The presence of this agent in male goat is considered very risky in terms of reproductive disorders and contagious agalactiae outbreaks in endemic areas in Iran. This is the first report of Mycoplasma agalactiae in goat bucks without contagious agalactiae signs in Iran.
Keywords
Contagious agalactia, Goat Bucks, Mycoplasma agalactiae, PCR
To cite this article
Mohammad Khezri, Seyed Ali Pourbakhsh, Abbas Ashtari, Babak Rokhzad, Investigation of Mycoplasma agalactiae by Molecular Methods in Goat Bucks in West of Iran, Animal and Veterinary Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 218-222. doi: 10.11648/j.avs.20140206.20
References
[1]
Gil, M. C., Hermoso de Mendoza, M., Rey, J., Alonso, J. M., Hermoso de Mendoza, J., and Poveda, J. B. 1999. Aetiology of caprine contagious agalactica syndrome in Extreadura, Spain. The Veterinary record, 144, 24-25.
[2]
Bridre, J., and Donatien, A. 1923. Le microbe de l´agalaxie contagieuse et sa culture In vitro. Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences, 177, 841-843.
[3]
De la Fe, C., Assuncao, P., Antunes, T., Rosales, R. S., and Poveda, J. B. 2005. Microbiological survey for Mycoplasma spp. In a contagious agalactia endemic area. The Veterinary Journal, 170, 257-259.
[4]
Ariza-Miguel, J., Rodríguez-Lázaro, D., and Hernández, M. 2012. A survey of Mycoplasma agalactiae in dairy sheep farms in Spain. BMC Veterinary Research, 8, 1-6.
[5]
Al-Momani, W., Abo- Shehada, M. N., and Nicholas, R. A. J. 2011. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for Mycoplsma mycoides subspecies capri infection in small ruminants in Northern Jordan. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 43, 463-469.
[6]
Corrales, J. C., Esnal c, A., De la Fe, C., S'anchez a, A., Assunc¸aob, P., Poveda, J. B., and Contreras, A. 2007. Contagious agalactia in small ruminants. Small Ruminant Research, 68, 154-166.
[7]
Zendulkova, D., Madanat, A., and Lany, P. 2007. Detection of Mycoplasma agalactiae by Polymerase Chain Reaction in Jordanian Sheep and goat herds. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 76, 71-77.
[8]
Tola, S., Angioi, A., Rocchigiani, A. M., Idini, G., Manunta, D., Galleri, G., and Leori, G. 1997. Detection of Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep milk samples by polymerase chain reaction. Veterinary Microbiology, 54, 17-22.
[9]
Mdanat, A., Zendulkov, D., and Posp, Z., 2001. Contagious agalactia of sheep and goats. A review. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 70, 403– 412.
[10]
Al-Momani, W., Nicholas, R. A. J., and Abo-Shehada, M. N. 2008. Risk factors associated with Mycoplasma agalactiae infection of small ruminants in northern Jordan. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 83, 1-10.
[11]
Chazel, M., Tardy, F., Le Grand, D., Calavas, D., and Poumarat, F. 2010. Mycoplasmoses of ruminants in France: recent data from the national surveillance network. BMC Veterinary Research, 6, 1-8.
[12]
Hasani-Tabatabayi, A., and Firouzi, R. 2005. Disease of animals due to bacteria. Tehran: Tehran University Press.
[13]
Khezri, M., Pourbakhsh, S. A., Ashtari, A., Rokhzad, B., and Khanbabaie, H. 2012. Isolation and prevalence of Mycoplasma agalactiae in Kurdish sheep in Kurdistan, Iran. Veterinary World, 5, 727-731.
[14]
Borry, G., and Entessar, F. 1963. Etude sur l agalaxie contagieuse des chevres et des moutons. Archives of Razi Institute, 15, 45-63.
[15]
Eaglesome, M. D., Garcia, M. M., and Stewart, R. B. 1992. Microbial agents associated with bovine genital tract infections and semen. Part II. Haemophilus sonnus,Mycoplasma spp., Ureaplasma spp. and Chlamydia, pathogens and semen contaminants: treatment of bull semen with antimicrobial agents. Veterinary Bulletin, 62, 887-910.
[16]
Rizzo, H., Junior, E. B. S. M., Oliveira, R. C., Yamaguti, M., Buzinhani, M., Timenetsky, J., and Gregory, L. 2011. Mollicutes isolation and PCR on ovine vaginal mucous and its association with reproductive problems in Piedade, SP, Brazil. Ciência Rural, 41, 324-329.
[17]
De la Fe, C., Gómez Martín, A., Amores, J., Corrales, J. C., Sánchez, A., Poveda, J. B., and Contreras, A. 2010. Latent infection of male goats with Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri at an artificial insemination centre. The Veterinary Journal, 186, 113-115.
[18]
De la Fe, C., Amores, J., Martin, A. G., Sanchez, A., Contreras, A., and Corrales, J. C. 2009. Mycoplasma agalactiae detected in the semen of goat bucks. Theriogenology, 72, 1278-1281.
[19]
OIE. 2013. OIE Reference Laboratories for any further information on diagnostic tests, reagents and vaccines for contagious agalactia. In, Terrestrial Manual. International Office of Epizootics, pp. 1-9.
[20]
Moradi Bidhendi, S., Khaki, P., and Pilehchian Langroudi, R. 2011. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma agalactiae by culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction in Sheep and Goat Milk Samples in Kurdistan province, Iran. Archives of Razi Institute, 66, 11-16.
[21]
De la Fe, C., Gutierrez, A., Poveda, J. B., Assuncao, P., Ramirez, A. S., and Fabelo, F. 2007. First isolation of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum, one of the causal agents of caprine contagious agalactia, on the island of Lanzarote (Spain). The Veterinary Journal, 173, 440-442.
[22]
Buonavoglia, D., Grecoa, G., Correntea, M., Grecoa, M. F., D’Abramoa, M., Latronicoa, F., Fasanellab, A., and Decaroa, N. 2010. Long-term immunogenicity and protection against Mycoplasma agalactiae induced by an oil adjuvant vaccine in sheep. Research in Veterinary Science, 88, 16-19.
[23]
Kojima, A., Takahashi, T., Kijima, M., Ogikubo, Y., Nishimura, Y., Nishimura, S., Harasawa, R., and Tamura, Y. 1997. Detection of Mycoplasma in avian live virus vaccines by polymerase chain reaction. Biologicals, 25, 365-371.
[24]
Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M., and Kumar, S. 2007. MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24, 1596-1599.
[25]
Pooladgar, A. R., Rahimilarki, E., Ghaem Maghami, S., Hossieni, S. M. H., and Ghaleh Golab, B. 2011. Application of PCR for diagnosis of contagious agalactia in Khuzestan Province-Iran. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 5, 5097-5101.
[26]
Amores, J., Gomez-Martin, A., Corrales, J. C., Sanchez, A., Contreras, A., and De la Fe, C. 2011. Presence of contagious agalactia causing mycoplasmas in Spanish goat artificial insemination centers. Theriogenology, 75, 1265-1270.
[27]
Bergonier, D., Berthelot, X., and Poumarat, F. 1997. Contagious agalactia of small ruminants: current knowledge concerning epidemiology, diagnosis and control. Revue Scientifique et Techchnique de l`office International Des Epizooties, 16, 848-873.
[28]
Ak, K., Ak, S., Gurel, A., Hasoksuz, M., Barau, A., Ozturkeler, Y., Ileri, I. K., and Minbay, M. 1995. Experimental studies on the effects of Mycoplasma agalactiae on the spermatozoa and genital organs of rams. Pendik Veterinary Mikrobiyology, 26, 139-155.
[29]
Hasso, S. A., AI-Aubaidi, J. M., and Al-Darraji, A. M. 1993. Contagious agalactia in goats: It’s severity as related to the route of infection and pregnancy. Small Ruminant Research, 10, 263-275.
[30]
Sylla, L., Stradaioli, G., Manuali, E., Rota, A., Zelli, R., Vincenti, L., and Monaci, M. 2005. The effect of Mycoplasma mycoides spp. Mycoides LC of bovine origin on in vitro fertilizing ability of bull spermatozoa and embryo development. Animal Reproduction Science, 85, 81-93.
[31]
Singh, N., Rajya, B. S., and Mohanty, G. C. 1974. Granular vulvovaginitis (GVV) in goats associated with Mycoplasma agalactiae. Cornell Veterinary, 64, 435-442.
[32]
Mercier, P., Pellet, M.-P., Morignat, E., Calavas, D., and Poumarat, F. 2007. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in external ear canal of goats: Influence of the sanitary status of the herd. Small Ruminant Research, 73, 296-299.
[33]
Amores, J., Corrales, J. C., Martín, Á. G., Sánchez, A., Contreras, A., and de la Fe, C. 2010. Comparison of culture and PCR to detect Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in ear swabs taken from goats. Veterinary Microbiology, 140, 105-108.
[34]
Nicholas, R. A. J. 2002. Improvements in the diagnosis and control of diseases of small ruminants caused by mycoplasmas. Small Ruminant Research, 45, 145-149.
[35]
Amores, J., Sánchez, A., Gómez-Martín, A., Corrales, J. C., Contreras, A., and De la Fe, C. 2012. Surveillance of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri in dairy goat herds. Small Ruminant Research, 102, 89-93.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186