Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 189-193
Received: Oct. 21, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 10, 2014;
Published: Dec. 2, 2014
Views 3061 Downloads 203
Ezzat M. E., Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Department of Bacteriology, Immunology and mycology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
Shabana I. I., Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Department of Bacteriology, Immunology and mycology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
Esawy A. M., Animal Health Research Institute, Mansoura, Dakahlia
Elsotohy M. E., Animal Health Research Institute, Mansoura, Dakahlia
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonellae in broilers farms in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. A total of 1000 samples were collected from 200 broiler chickens (40 apparently healthy, 80 diseased chickens and 80 freshly dead broiler chickens).The samples were liver, caecum, heart blood, spleen & kidney. The colonial morphology, microscopical and biochemical identifications of the isolates revealed the presence of 37 out of 200 chickens (18.5%) salmonella species isolates, representing: 3 from apparently healthy chicken (7.5%), 21 from diseased chickens (26.25%) and 13 from freshly dead broiler chickens (16.25%).The rate of recovery of Salmonellae from the different internal organs showed that high recovery rate was from liver, caecum, spleen, heart then kidney as the follow (9.5%), (5.5%), (4.5%), (3%) and (2%), respectively. The serotyping of the isolated salmonellae from chickens were eight S. enteritidis, one S. maccles Field, two S. wingrove, one S. eingedi, three S. rissen,two S. derby, two S. vejle, one S. magherafelt, two S. berta, two S. enterica sub.spp salamae, one S. gueuletapee, one S. blegdam, five S. kentucky, two S. newport, two S. agona and two S. virchow were isolated from broilers. PCR assay was carried out for six serovars (S. enteritidis, S. maccles Field, S. rissen, S. derby, S. magherafelt and S. enterica sub.spp salamae) to detect the presence of invA, sopB and stn gene, All serovars had the three genes. Gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, colistin sulphate and enrofloxacin were found to be the most effective antimicrobials against the tested isolates; while a high resistance to erythromycin and flumequine were shown. High prevalence of Salmonella in broilers and multidrug resistance, constituting a major concern for public health. Further surveillance programs and research are a necessity to understand their epidemiology and to limit the spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella spp.
Ezzat M. E.,
Shabana I. I.,
Esawy A. M.,
Elsotohy M. E.,
Detection of Virulence Genes in Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Broilers, Animal and Veterinary Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 6,
2014, pp. 189-193.
Gallegos-Robles, M.A., Morales-Loredo, A., Alvarez-Ojeda, G., Vega-P, A., Chew-M, Y., Velarde, S., Fratamico, P.2008. Identification of Salmonella serotypes isolated from cantaloupe and chile pepper production systems in Mexico by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. J Food Prot. 71(11):2217-22.
Plym, F., Wierup, M. 2006. Salmonella contamination: a significant challenge to the global marketing of animal food products. Rev Sci Tech. 25:541-54.
Hendriksen, R.S., Vieira, A.R., Karlsmose, S., Wong, D.M.A., Jensen, A.B. 2011. Global monitoring of Salmonella serovar distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: results of quality assured laboratories from 2001 to 2007. Foodborne Path Dis 8: 887–900
Chiu, L.H., Chiu, C.H., Horn, Y.M., Chiou, C.S., Lee, C.Y., Yeh, C.M., Yu, C.Y., Wu, C.P., Chang, C.C. and Chu, C. 2010. Characterization of 13 multi-drug resistant Salmonella serovars from different broiler chickens associated with those of human isolates. BMC Microbiol.10:86.
Kovats, R.S., Edwards, S.J., Hajat, S., Armstrong, B.G., Ebi, K.L. and Menne, B. 2004. The effect of temperature on food poisoning: a time-series analysis of salmonellosis in ten European countries. Epidemiol Infect. 132(3):443-53.
Van Asten, A.J. and van Dijk, J.E. 2005. Distribution of classic virulence factors among Salmonella spp. FEMS Immunol. Med. Micribiol.,44, 251-259.
ISO 6579 (2002): Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs- horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella SPP. International standard. (Fourth edition) (2002- 07- 15).
Huehn, S., La Ragione, R.M, Anjum, M., Saunders, M., Woodward, M.J., Bunge, C., Helmuth, R., Hauser, E., Guerra, B., Beutlich, J., Brisabois, A., Peters, T., Svensson, L., Madajczak, G., Litrup, E., Imre, A., Herrera-Leon, S., Mevius, D., Newell, D.G., Malorny, B. 2010. Virulotyping and antimicrobial resistance typing of Salmonella enterica serovars relevant to human health in Europe. Foodborne Pathogens Dis 7:523-35.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI): Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests, Approved standard-Ninth Edition (M2-A9). Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2006.
Kudaka, J., Itokazy, K., Taira, K., Iwai, A., Kond, M., Sua, T. and Iwanaga, M. 2006. Characterization of Salmonella Isolated in Okinawa, Japan. Jpan. J. Infect .Dis. 59: 15 – 19.
Fofana, A.1. , Bada Alambedji, R., Seydi, M., Akakpo, A.J. 2006. Antibioresistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from raw chicken meat in Senegal. Dakar Med. 51(1):57-62.
Kumar, T., Rajora, V. R., Arora, N. 2014. Prevalence of Salmonella in pigs and broilers in the Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India. Indian J Med Microbiol.32:99-101.
Ellerbroek, L.1., Narapati, D., Phu, T. N., Poosaran, N., Pinthong, R., Sirimalaisuwan, A., Tshering, P., Fries, R., Zessin, K.H., Baumann, M. and Schroeter, A. 2010. Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates from imported chicken carcasses in Bhutan and from pig carcasses in Vietnam. J Food Prot. 73(2):376-9.
Roy, p., Dhillon, A.S., Lauerman, L.H., Schaberg, D.M., Bandli, D. and Johnson, S. 2002. Results of Salmonella isolation from poultry products, environment and other characteristics. Avian Dis., 13: 793-803.
Oliveira, S.D., Rodenbusch, C.R., Cé, M.C., Rocha, S.L. and Canal, C.W. 2003. Evaluation of selective and non-selective enrichment PCR procedures for Salmonella detection. Lett Appl Microbiol. 36(4):217-221.
Dione, M.M., Ikumapayi, U., Saha, D., Mohammed, N.I., Adegbola, R.A., Geerts, S., Ieven, M., Antonio, M. 2011. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates in The Gambia and Senegal. J .Infect. Dev. Ctries, 5, 765-775.
Elemfareji, O.I. and Thong, K.L. 2013. Comparative Virulotyping of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella enteritidis. Indian J Microbiol. 53(4):410-7.
Mezal, E.H., Stefanova, R., Khan, A.A. 2013. Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana from food, environmental and clinical samples. Int J Food Microbiol. 164(1):113-8.
Murugkar, H.V., Rahman, H. and Dutta, P.K. 2003. Distribution of virulence genes in Salmonella serovars isolated from man & animals. Indian J Med Res.117:66–70.
Prager, R., Fruth, A. and Tschäpe, H. 1995. Salmonella enterotoxin (stn) gene is prevalent among strains of Salmonella enterica but not among Salmonella bongori and other Enterobacteriaceae. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol; 12 : 47-50.
Rahman, H. 1999. Prevalence of enterotoxin gene (stn) among different serovars of Salmonella. Indian J Med Res; 110: 43-6.
Rajagopal, R. I., Mini, M. and Ramanathan, R. 2013. Outbreaks of salmonellosis in three different poultry farms of Kerala, India, Asian Pac J Trop Biomed; 3(6): 496-500.
Abd-Elghany, S.M., Sallam, K.I., Abd-Elkhalek, A., Tamura, T. 2014. Occurrence, genetic characterization and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from chicken meat and giblets. Epidemiol Infect. 8:1-7