Identification and Prevalence of Ectoparasites in Cattle and Sheep in and Around Bishoftu Town, Central Ethiopia
Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages: 124-129
Received: Jun. 8, 2014;
Accepted: Jul. 21, 2014;
Published: Jul. 30, 2014
Views 4420 Downloads 689
Meseret Gebreselama, Elfora Agro-industries export abattoir, Bishoftu, P. O. Box 2500, Bishoftu, Ethiopia
Fikre Zeru, College of Veterinary Medicine, Samara University, P.O. Box 132, Samara, Ethiopia
Gebremedhin Romha, Dilla University, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Department of Animal and Range Science, P.O. Box 419, Dilla, Ethiopia
A cross-sectional study was conducted from October, 2010 to May, 2011 on a total of 384 cattle and sheep to identify the major ectoparasites and to determine their prevalence in and around Bishoftu town, central Ethiopia. Out of 202 cattle and 182 sheep examined for ectoparasites, 95 (47.0%) cattle and 73 (40.1%) sheep were found to be infested with one or more ectoparasites. Overall eight genera of ectoparasites belonging to ticks (Boophilus, Amblyomma, Rhepicephalus and Hyalomma), lice (Damalina and Linognathus) and mange mite (Demodex spp and Psoroptes spp) were encountered in the study area. Prevalence of tick infestation was 35.2% (71/202) in cattle and 26.9% (49/182) in sheep. Among the risk factors assessed, female animals (cattle: χ2=5.4, P=0.020; sheep: χ2=5.5, P=0.019) and production system (cattle: χ2=29.4, P=0.000; sheep: χ2=10.3, P=0.001) were significantly associated with prevalence of tick infestation. The prevalence of pediculosis was 8.9% and 12.6% in bovine and ovine, respectively. Sex (χ2=19.3; P=0.000) and breed (χ2=4.6; P=0.033) in cattle, and production system in both cattle (χ2=5.5; P=0.020) and sheep (χ2=6.4; P=0.040) were found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of pediculosis. The prevalence of demodicosis and psoroptic mange in cattle was 6.6% and 0.6%, respectively. However, the only mange mite species encountered in sheep was Psoroptes with the prevalence rate of 2.2%. Age in cattle (χ2=14.0; P=0.000) and sheep (χ2=3.8; P=0.040), and body condition in cattle (χ2=7.7; P=0.021) were found to be significantly associated with the prevalence of mange mite infestation. The present study revealed that widespread occurrence of ectoparasites in cattle and sheep in the study area, and the major ectoparasites identified were tick, lice and mange mite, thus, improved management practice and well-coordinated control interventions are required.
Identification and Prevalence of Ectoparasites in Cattle and Sheep in and Around Bishoftu Town, Central Ethiopia, Animal and Veterinary Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 4,
2014, pp. 124-129.
Ayele, S., Assegid, W., Jabbar, M., Ahmed, M. and Belachew, H. (2003). Livestock marketing in Ethiopia. A review of structure performance and development initiatives socio-economic and policy research working papers. ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya, Pp: 35.
Bansal, G. C. (2005). Bovine theileriosis in India: an overview. Proceedings of National Academy of Science, India, 75: 134–43.
Kassa, B. (1998). Control of Sheep and Goat Skin Diseases. In: By Ian, B.C. and Bayou, B. (eds.) Proceedings of Control of Sheep and Goat Skin Diseases for Improved Quality of Hides and Skin, 13-14 Feb, 1998, FAO, Addis Ababa.
Wondwossen, A. (2000). Sheep and goat skin disease control initiatives in Amhara region Ethiopia. Veterinary epidemiology news letter, pp: 1-9.
Bekele, T. (2002). Studies on seasonal dynamics of ticks of Ogaden cattle and individual variation in resistance to ticks in eastern Ethiopia. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 49: 285-288.
Wall, R. (2007). Ectoparasites: Future challenges in a changing world. Veterinary Parasitology, 148: 62–74.
Onu, S.H., and Shiferaw, T.Z. (2013). Prevalence of ectoparasite infestations of cattle in Bench Maji zone, southwest Ethiopia, Veterinary World, 6: 291-294.
Byford, R. L., Craig, M. E. and Crosby, B. L. (1992). A review of ectoparasites and their effect on cattle production. Journal of Animal Science, 70: 597-602.
Kusilika, L. and Kambarage, D.(1996). Common diseases of sheep and goat in Sub saharan Africa.Vetaid center for Veterinary medicine, Scotland, 102-109.
Heath, C.G. (1994). Ectoparasites of livestock in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 21: 23-38.
Holds worth, P.A. (2005). ectoparasiticide use in contemporary Australian livestock production. Avacre, Canberra Australia, pp: 58-69.
Regassa, A. (2001). Tick infestation of Borana cattle in the Borana Province of Ethiopia. Onderstepoort, Journal of Veterinary Research, 68: 41-45.
Abebe, R., Tatek, M. Megersa, B. and Sheferaw, D. (2011). Prevalence of Small Ruminant Ectoparasites and Associated Risk Factors in Selected Districts of Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria, 7: 433-437.
Tikit, B. and Addis, M. (2011). Distribution of Ixodid Ticks on Cattle in and Around Holeta Town, Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria, 7: 527-531.
Fentahun, T., Woldemariam, F. Chanie, M. and Berhan, M. (2012). Prevalence of Ectoparasites on Small Ruminants in and Around Gondar Town. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research, 7: 106-111.
Kebede, M.C. (2013). Effect of Small Ruminant Ectoparasites in the Tanning Industry in Ethiopia: A review. Journal of Animal science advances, 3: 424-430.
Radostits, O.M., Gay, C. Hinchcliff, K.W. and Constable, P.D. (2007). A textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and horses, 10 edition, Suanders, Edinburgh, London, pp: 1585-1612.
Yacob, H., Nesanet, B.and Dinka, A. (2008a). Part II: Prevalences of major skin diseases in cattle, sheep and goats at Adama Veterinary Clinic, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire, 159: 455-461.
Yacob, H., Ataklty, H. and Kumsa, B. (2008b). Major ectoparasites of cattle in and around Mekelle, northern Ethiopia. Entemological Research, 38: 126-130.
Chanie, M., Negash, T. and Sirak, A. (2010). Ectoparasites are the major causes of various types of skin lesions in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42: 1103-1109.
Yacob, H.T. (2014). Ectoparasitism: Threat to Ethiopian small ruminant population and tanning industry. Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 6: 25-33.
NMSA, (2004). National Meteorology Serves Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Thrusfield, M. (2005). Veterinary Epidemiology, 3rd ed., Blackwell Science Ltd., Edinburgh, UK., Pp: 228-247.
Aiello S. and Mays, A. (1998). The Merck veterinary manual, 8th ed., Merck and Co, Inc, White house station, NJ. USA, Pp: 131-133.
Nicholson, M.J. and Butterworth, M.A. (1986). A guide to condition scoring zebu cattle. International livestock center for Africa (ILCA). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Pp: 72-74.
Gatenby, R.M. (2002). Sheep: the Tropical Agriculturalist. 2nd Ed., Macmillan Publishers Ltd., CTA, Wageningen, London, Pp: 178.
Soulsby, E. (1982). Helminths, Arthropods and protozoa of Domesticated Animals, 7th ed., Baillere Tindall, London, pp: 492-552.
Urquhart, G.M., Armour, J. Duncan, J.L. Dunn, A.M. and Jennings, F.W. (1996). Veterinary Parasitology, 2nd ed., Chandler, E.A., Gaskell, C.J. and Gaskell, R.M. (eds), Black well science Ltd., UK., pp. 180-201.
Tadesse, A., Fentaw, E. Mekbib, B. Abebe, R. Mekuria, S. and Zewdu, E. (2011). Study on the prevalence of ectoparasite infestation of ruminants in and around Kombolcha and damage to fresh goat pelts and wet blue (pickled) skin at Kombolch Tannary, Northestern Ethiopia. Ethiop. Veterinary Journal, 15: 87-101.
Islam, M.S., Rahman, S.A. Sarker, P. and Anisuzzaman, M.M.H. (2009). Prevalence and population density of ectoparasitic infestation in cattle in Sirajgonj district, Bangladesh. Bangladish Research Publications Journal, 2: 332-339.
Rony, S.A., Mondal, M.M.H. Begum, N. Islam, M.A. and Affroze, S. (2010). Epidemiology of ectoparasitic infestations in cattle at bhawal Forest area, gazipur. Bangladish Journal of Veterinary Medecine, 8: 27 – 33.
Zeryehun, T. and Atomsa, M. (2012). Ectoparasite infestations of sheep and goats. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Science, 28: 185-189.
Amare, S., Asfaw, Y. and Yacob, H. (2013). Ectoparasites of Sheep and Goats in North-West Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 17:55-67.
Yacob, H., Yalew, T. and Dinka, A. (2008c). Part I: Ectoparasite prevalences in sheep, and goats in and around Wolaita Soddo, Southern Ethiopia. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire, 159: 450-454.
Bekele, J., Tariku, M. and Abebe, R. (2011). External parasite infestations in sheep and goats in Wolmera district of Oromia region, central Ethiopia. Journal of Animal Veterinary Advance, 10: 518-523.
Kumsa, B., Beyecha, K. and Geloye, M. (2012). ‘Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia’, Onderstepoort, Journal of Veterinary Research, 79: 442.
Tesfaye, D., Assefa, M. Demissie, T. and Taye, M. (2012). Ectoparasites of small ruminants presented at Bahir Dar Veterinary Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7: 4669-4674.