Animal and Veterinary Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages: 101-104
Received: Jun. 12, 2014;
Accepted: Jun. 26, 2014;
Published: Jun. 30, 2014
Views 3311 Downloads 290
Anton Lazarinov Antonov, Department of Obstetrics, Reproduction and Reproductive Disorders, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
Julieta Dineva Dineva, Department of Immunobiology of Reproduction, Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction "Acad. K. Bratanov", Tzarigradsko shose 73, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
Plamen Ivanchev Georgiev, Department of Obstetrics, Reproduction and Reproductive Disorders, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the pH of vaginal secretions during proestrus and estrus in bitches and its association with the optimal time for insemination and the values of steroid hormones. Sixteen bitches from different breeds and age were included in this investigation. Vaginal pH of each bitch was measured once daily, starting from the first day of vulval bleeding and continuing until the first day of cytological diestrus. In each bitch vaginal smears were taken to determine the onset of estrus and diestrus and blood samples were taken to determine serum progesterone (ng/ml) and estradiol-17β (pg/ml) for detection of the onset of ovulation and their influence on values and the dynamics of vaginal pH. Vaginal pH values in the bitches at the first day of proestrus were between 7.4 and 8.7. This parameter decreased with the progress of the proestrus and the entering into the estrus. Compared to the rest of the estrus, at the time of ovulation and on the next day, a consistent decrease of mean values (6.61±0.15 and 6.63±0.15 respectively) was observed (р<0,01). Individually at the time of ovulation vaginal pH ranged between 6.5 and 6.8. In the days following ovulation a gradual increase in mean values was detected. At the first day of diestrus vaginal pH values were measured significantly higher than those in estrus (р<0,001) and were between 7.4 and 8.3 (7.74±0.26). In our study we found that the vaginal pH values in the bitch are lowest at the time of ovulation, with individual variations and exceptions.
Anton Lazarinov Antonov,
Julieta Dineva Dineva,
Plamen Ivanchev Georgiev,
Dynamics of Vaginal pH in the Bitch during Proestrus and Estrus, Animal and Veterinary Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 4,
2014, pp. 101-104.
M. Genchev, A. Popov, G. Demirov and P. Miladinov, “Short Chemical Encyclopedia”, vol. 1, pp. 210, 1971.
C. De Oliveira, “Study of aerobic microflora and vaginal pH in healthy pubescent bitches (Canis familiaris) during the phases of the oestrus cycle; evaluation of the sensitivity to antimicrobial agents”, Thesis, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1991.
C. De Oliveira, E Da Costa and J. Da Silva, “The vaginal pH of healthy bitches during the oestrus cycle”, Revista Bra-sileira Med. Vet. 20, pp. 32-34, 1998.
A. Ross A., “Investigations in the female dog’s va-ginal aerobic flora and pH”, Dissertation, Berlin, 2005.
A. Schulz, “Evaluation of minimal-ly-invasive methods to observe the cycle of the bitch in heat”, Dissertation, Berlin, 2002.
B. Theise, “Unterstutzung zur Entwicklung eines computergestutzten Lernpro-gramms zu den Grundlagen der Gynakologie bei der Hundin“, Dissertation, 2002.
J. Ehlers, „Standardisierung und Reproduzierbarkeit der Vaginalzytologie bei der Hundin und ihr Einsatz bei der Bestimmung des optimalen Belegungszeitraumers“, Dissertation, Munchen, 2000.
S. Johnston and M. Root M., “Serum progesterone timing of ovulation in the bitch”, In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Society for Theriogenology, San Antonio, TX, September 13-15. Nashville, Society for Theriogenology, pp. 195-203, 1995.
M. El-Naggar and E. Bak-sai-Horvath, “The physical properties of the vaginal mucus of Hungarian cows during the oestrus cycle”, Acta. Vet. Acad. Sci. Hung. 21, pp. 21-29, 1971.
S. Schmitt, G. Mc Coy and C. Haus-ler, “Vaginal pH during the oestrus cycle of heifers”, J. Dairy Sci. 62 Suppl. 1, pp. 175-176, 1979.
G. Lewis and S. Newman, “Changes throughout estrus cycles of variables that might indicate estrus in dairy cows”, J. Dairy Sci., 67, pp. 146-152, 1984.
E. Schilling and W. Röstel, “Methodische Untersuchungen zur Brunstfeststellung beim Schwein”, Dtsch. Tierärztl. Wochenschr. 71 (16), pp. 429-436, 1964.
J. Honmode and S. Pachlag, “Time of ovulation and chloride content of vaginal mucus during oestrus in sheep”. Indian. J. Anim. Sci., 43 (2), pp. 136-140, 1973.
N. Kusakari, K. Kishi and M. Ohara, “Changes in the vulva, pH and weight of cervical mucus and vaginal smear of ewes during estrous cycle”, Bulletin of the Takikawa Animal Husbandry Experiment Station, 24, pp. 7-12, 1988.
K. Polak and W. Kammlade, “Vaginal pH during estrus in mares”, Theriogenology, 15 (3), pp. 271-276, 1981.
A. Antonov, R. Grancharova, J. Dineva and P. Georgiev, “Dynamics of vaginal electrical resistance in the bitch during proestrus and estrus”, Second Scientific Students Conference, Abstract book, p. 25, 2012.
J. Neill, “Knobil and Neill´s Physiology of Reproduction”, 3rd edition, p. 117, 2006.
S. Johnston, M. Kustritz and P. Olson, “Canine and feline Theriogenology” 2nd ed. W.B Saunders Company, p. 289, 2001.
R. Johnson, G. Mc Coy and C. Hausler, “Vaginal pH in hormone-treated ovarieectomized heifers” J. Dairy Sci. 1, p. 176, 1979.
P. Senger, “Pathways to Pregnancy and Parturition”, 2nd edition, 2003.