From the Family to the State: Shifts in Manchukuo Female Education Principles (1932-1945)
Volume 8, Issue 2, March 2019, Pages: 57-62
Received: Feb. 6, 2019;
Accepted: Mar. 21, 2019;
Published: Apr. 18, 2019
Views 45 Downloads 23
Wenwen Wang, Department of Integrated Sciences for Global Society, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
In 1931 Japan occupied northeast China, and in 1932 created a puppet state which they named “Manchukuo”. The Manchukuo government began to formulate education policy immediately after its creation. Over the period of the state’s existence, Japanese occupiers adopted a changing set of educational systems to meet the changing demands of the colonial state. This study investigates the state’s main female secondary education objectives and principles, in the context of the state’s overall goals, dividing the era into three distinct periods. This study finds that while the idea of “Good wives and wise mothers” was used consistently throughout the era, the emphasis changed from more domestic and personal issues towards more public issues, including sacrifice for the good of the state, and an emphasis on strong ties with Japan. The image of an ideal woman changed from a more traditional, domestic one, towards one in which women were expected to take up some of the roles had traditionally been played by men.
From the Family to the State: Shifts in Manchukuo Female Education Principles (1932-1945), Education Journal.
Vol. 8, No. 2,
2019, pp. 57-62.
Duara, P. (2006). Nationalism, imperialism, federalism, and the case of Manchukuo: a response to Anthony Pagden. Common Knowledge, 12(1), 47-65.
Qi H. S. (2004). Translated by Takenaka Kenichi, Manchuria oral history: resistance on “suffering education”. Tokyo: Kosei Press, 230-249.
Yamamuro S. (2006). Manchuria Under Japanese Dominion. University of Pennsylvania Press.
Jiang N. D., Ying C. W. (1991). The History of “Manchukuo”. Dalian: Dalian Press.
Du Y. (2009). A comparative analysis between the teacher education of puppet Manchuria and Japan. Century Bridge, (1), 81-82.
Liu G. B. (2007). An investigation of Mongolian ethnic education policy in Manchukuo: Education in Xingan Female National High School. Annals of Educational Research, (53), 40-45.
Shinbo A. (2008). Mongolian female youth education in Manchukuo: Centering on Xin’an Female National High School. East Asian Studies, (50), 3-17.
Nakashima T. (2015). Russian Women’s Education in Manchuria: Focusing on Secondary and Higher Education. Ikuta, Michiko (eds.), Manchukuo Women: Living In The Multi-Ethnic Space. Osaka: Ōsaka University Press, 68-87.
Hanai M. (2015). Manchukuo emigrated Korean women: focusing on female education. Ikuta, Michiko (eds.), Manchukuo Women: Living in the Multi-Ethnic Space. Osaka: Osaka University Press, 254-278.
Cai Y. Q. (2010). Making Shadows of the War: Women’s Mobilization in Manchukuo (1932-1945). Taipei: Taipei National History Museum, 99-111.
Wang W. W. (2016). Overall trends of female secondary education in Manchukuo. The Journal of Study on Language and Culture of Korea and China, (22): 91-100.
Wang W. W. (2019). Training national and vocational women: characteristics of curriculum of female secondary education in colonized Manchuria. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 3(3): 1-10.
Wang W. W. (2019). The female images and nationality: examining the Manchukuo moral textbooks “Xiushen” and “Guomin Daode”. Annual Report on the Colonial Education History, (21), 42-64.
Wang Y. P. (1989). Fourteen-year Educational History of the Occupied Northeast. Jilin: Jilin Education Press, 22-123.
Fengtian Female Normal School (1926). A general survey of Fengtian female normal school and affiliated primary school. Fengtian: Fengtian Female Normal School, 14.
Fengtian Female Normal School (1926). A general survey of Fengtian female normal school and affiliated primary school. Fengtian: Fengtian Female Normal School, 4.
The Fengtian First Female Secondary School (1933). Embodiments of labor education. Fengtian Education, 1(4), 4-5.
Bai G. T. (1935). Research on female learning and training. Fengtian Education, 2(3), 64.
Liu G. F. (1935). Points for special attention on practices and methods in current Manchukuo female education. Fengtian Education, 2(3), 67.
Nawa (1936). The essence of female education. Fengtian Education, 4(7), 106-109.
Education Department of Northeast Normal University (1951). The slavish education of the “Manchukuo”. Changchun: Northeast Normal University Press, 34-36.
Nakamura T. (1938). The fundamentalism of female education. Fengtian Education, 6(2), 61-63.
Satō Y. (1937). The mission of women educators. Fengtian Education, 5(9), 135-137.
Nakano H. (1937). About the Mission of the woman’s family. Fengtian Education, 5(9), 140-141.
Ren Z. X. (1941). Female education: the teaching of Manchukuo national high school. Fengtian Education, 7(7), 87.
Minagawa (1937). Principle of new education system, Manzhou Education, 3(6), 2-3.
Hikari Yasuhiro (1943). Education acts in 1942. Kenkoku Education, 9(1), 14.