Deep Swimming and Murky Waters: Phenomenological Interviewing - Reflections from the Field
The overall aim of this exercise is to reflect on the merits and caveats of phenomenological interviewing as an educational research tool. To this end, I endeavor to conduct small-scale research using phenomenological interviewing and analysis and to reflect on the process. The phenomenon being researched is junior secondary pupils’ (13-16) lived experience of teacher-pupil mentoring as part of a 2011-2012 school based mentoring initiative in a mixed gender community school in South East Ireland. Issues related to the use of phenomenology in educational research shall be presented, leading to the derived research question. Interviews as a research instrument shall be discussed, with particular emphasis on phenomenological interviewing, followed by sampling and ethical concerns. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and discussion of findings are presented, followed by conclusions drawn from the study. Finally, I shall reflect on whether the process has succeeded in answering the research question whilst also offering my opinions on the promises and pitfalls of phenomenological interviewing and suggestions for future practice.
Deep Swimming and Murky Waters: Phenomenological Interviewing - Reflections from the Field, Education Journal.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2014, pp. 170-178.
Wimpenny, P., & Gaas, J. (2000). Interviewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(6), 1485-1492.
Spiegelberg, H. (1978). The Phenomenological Movement. A Historical Introduction (Vol. 1 and 2). The Hague: Martinus Nij-hoff.
Wilkes, L. (1991). Phenomenology: a window to the nursing world. In G. Gray, & R. Pratt, Towards a Discipline of Nursing (pp. 229-246). Melbourne: Churchill Living-stone.
Bentz, V., & Shapiro, J. (1998). Mindful Inquiry in Social Research. London: Sage.
Cohen, L., Mannion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education (6 ed.). London: Routledge.
Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching Live Experience: Humans Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. Ontario: The Althouse Press.
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Polit, D., Beck, C., & Hungler, B. (2001). Essentials of nursing research: Methods, appraisals and utilisation. Phila-delphia: Lippincott.
Creswell, J. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. London: Sage Publications.
Sanders, W., & Horn, S. (1998). Research findings from the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS) database: Implications for educa-tional evaluation and research. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 12(3), 247-256.
Mitchell, G. J. (1990). Revisioning Educational Leadership: A phenomenological Approach. New York: Garland.
Mitchell, G. J. (1993). The same thing yet different phe-nomenon: a way of coming to know - or not? Journal of Nursing Science Quarterly, 6(2), 6.
McDuffie, K. (1988). Phenomenology and Australian Education . Melbourne: Mo-nash.
Stanage, S. M. (1987). Adult Education and Phenomenological Research: New di-rections for Theory, Practice and Research . Malabar: Robert E. Krieger.
Creswell, J. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Polit, D. F., & Hungler, B. P. (1991). Nursing Research: Principles Methods 3rd edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Schultz, S. (1994). Exploring the benefits of a subjective approach in qualitative nursing research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20, 412-417.
Miller, W. L., & Crabtree, B. F. (1992). Primary care research: A multimethod typology and qualitative road map,. In B. F. Crabtree, & W. L. Miller, Doing Qualitative Research. Newbury Park: Sage Publications#.
Swingewood, A. (1991). A Short History of Sociological Thought. In R. Basingstoke, & T. Macmillan, Qualitative Research: Analysis types and software tools . New York: The Falmer Press.
Leonard, V. W. (1989). A Heideggerian phenomenologic perspective on the concept of person. Advances in Nursing Science, 11(4), 40-55.
Ashworth, P., & Lucas, U. (2000). Achieving Empathy and Engagement: a practical approach to the design, conduct and reporting of phenomenographic research. Studies in Higher Education, 25(3), 295-308.
Crotty, M. (1996). Phenomenology and Nursing Research. Melbourne: Churchill Livingstone.
Lowes, L., & Prowse, M. A. (2001). Standing outside the interview process? The illusion of objectivity in phenomenological data generation. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 38, 471-480.
Diekelmann, N. L., & Ironside, P. M. (1998). Hermeneutics. In J. Fitzpatrick, Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. New York: Springer.
O'Leary, Z. (2005). From Real Problems to Researchable Questions. In Z. O'Leary, Researching Real World Problems (pp. 32-38). London, California: Sage.
Wellington, J. (2011). Educational Research: Contemperary issues and practical approaches. London: Continuum Intl Pub Group.
Gay, B. (1994). What is mentoring? Education and Training, 36(5), 4-7.
Kvale, S. (1996). Interviews. London: Sage.
Laing, R. D. (1967). The Politics of Experience and the Bird of Paradise. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Walford, G. (2001). Doing Qualitative Educational Research: A Personal Guide to the Research Process. London: Continuum.
Kerlinger, F. N. (1970). Foundations of Behavioural Research. New York: Rinehart & Winston.
Merton, R. K., & Kendall, P. L. (1946). The focused interview. American Journal of Sociology, 51, 541-557.
Hallett, C. (1995). Understanding the phenomenological approach to research. Nurse Researcher, 3, 55-65.
Ring, L., & Danielson, E. (1997). Patients' experiences of long term oxygen therapy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26, 337-344.
Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (1995). Designing Qualitative Research 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Jasper, M. A. (1994). Issues in phenomenology for researchers of nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19, 309-314.
Seidman, I. E. (1991). Interviewing as Qualitative Research. New York: Teachers College Press.
Hardy, M. (1994). Qualitative research and nursing. In M. Hardey, & A. Mulhall, Nursing Research. Theory and Practice (pp. 59-76). London: Chapman & Hall.
Carlile, O. (2005). Rearranging the mental furniture: Reflective Practice and the Teacher. RIGAS TECHNISKA KOLEDZA.
King, D. (2012). Formal teacher-pupil mentoring in Irish second level education: 'The Blackwater Experience'. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 10(1), 89-108.
Iriving, S. E., Moore, D. W., & Hamilton, R. J. (2003). Mentoring for high ability high school students. Education and Training, 45(2), 100-109.
Miller, A. (1999). Business mentoring in schools: Does it raise attainment? Education and Training, 41(2), 73-78.
Hylan, I., & Postlethwaite, K. (1998). The success of teacher-pupil mentoring in raising standards of achievement. Education and Training, 40(2), 68-77.
Tomlinson, E. R. (1989). Having it both ways: Hierarchical focusing as research method. British Educational Research Journal, 15(2), 155-176.
Rice, P. L., & Ezzy, D. (1999). Qualitative Research Methods: A health focus . South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Robson, C. (2002). Real World Research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner researchers (2 ed.). Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers.
Hulley, S., & Cummings, S. (1988). Designing Clinical Research. Baltimore: MD,Williams & Wil-kins.
Sikes, P. (2004). Methodology, procedures and ethical concerns. In C. Opie, Doing educational research: a guide for first-time researchers (pp. 15-33). London: Sage Publica-tions.
British Educational Research Institute (BERA). (2004). BERA Guidelines. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from British Educational Research Institute: http://www.bera.ac.uk/publications/guidelines/
UNICEF. (1990). Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Office of the United Nations High Commis-sioner for Human Rights: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm
ITC. (2001). Teaching Council Research Council. Retrieved May 11, 2010, from The Irish Teaching Council web-site - www.teachingcouncil.ie: http://www.teachingcouncil.ie/_fileupload/Downloads/Research_Policy_30290484.pdf
Larkin, M., Watts, S., & Clifton, E. (2006). Giving voice and making sense in interpretative pheno-menological analysis. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 102-120.
Hycner, R. H. (1985). Some guidelines for the phenomenological analysis of interview data. Human Studies, 8, 279-303.
Pollio, H., Henley, T., & Thompson, C. (1997). The phenomenology of everyday life . New York: Cambridge University Press.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qu-alitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Coffey, A., & Atkinson, P. (1996). Making sense of qualitative data, complementary research strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Svensson, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations of phenomeno-graphy. Higher Education Research & Development, 16(2), 159-171.
Taber, T. D. (1991). Triangulating job attitudes with interpretive and positivist measurement methods. Personnel Psychology, 44, 577-600.
Ribbens, P. (2007). Interviews in educational research: conver-sations with a purpose. In A. Briggs, & M. Coleman, Research Methods in Educational Leadership and Management. London: Sage.
Knafl, K. A. (1994). Dialogue: Clarifying phenomenolog-ical methods. In J. Morse, Critical issues in qualitative research methods (p. 134). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.