The Effectiveness of a Blended Learning Program on Developing Palestinian Tenth Graders' English Writing Skills
Education Journal
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2013, Pages: 208-221
Received: Aug. 23, 2013; Published: Oct. 20, 2013
Views 3782      Downloads 527
Awad Soliman Keshta, College of Education, the Islamic University of Gaza (IUG), Palestine
Ismail Ibrahim Harb, Ministry of Education, Gaza, Palestine
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of using a blended learning program on developing Palestinian tenth graders’ English writing skills. To achieve the study aims, the researchers designed a writing achievement test consisting of (40) items. The sample study consisted of (40) students from Shohadaa' Rafah Basic School in Rafah Directorate of Education 2012-2013. The blended learning program was used in teaching the experimental group (20) students, while the traditional method was used with the control one (20) students in the second term of the school year (2012-2013). The experiment lasted for eight weeks. The study findings revealed that there were significant differences at (α ≤0.05) in the mean scores of the test in favor of the experimental group. The findings also pointed out that there were statistically significant differences at (α ≤0.05) in the participants' achievement level before and after implementing the blended program in favor of the post-application. This was attributed to the blended learning program in teaching writing. In the light of the study results, the researcher recommended that education stakeholders should adopt the blend in teaching English, hold educational courses and workshops for teachers in employing blended learning to enrich the teaching learning process, create effective learning environment that enhances self- learning and develops students' achievement level.
Blended Learning, Effectiveness, Writing Skills
To cite this article
Awad Soliman Keshta, Ismail Ibrahim Harb, The Effectiveness of a Blended Learning Program on Developing Palestinian Tenth Graders' English Writing Skills, Education Journal. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2013, pp. 208-221. doi: 10.11648/
Abo- Mosa, M. A. and Al-Soos S. A. (2010). The impact of a training program based on blended learning on teachers' competence in designing and producing educational multi-media. Research presented to the first international conference of Omani Association for Educational Technologies. Massqat: Oman.
Abu Nahia, S. (1994). Educational Measurement. 1st ed., Cairo: Anglo Egyptian Library.
Al Agha, I. (1997). Educational Research, Elements, Methodology and Tools. The Internal Consistency Validity (4th ed.). Gaza, Palestine: Islamic University.
Affana, a. (2000). The effect size in educational research. Palestinian Educational Studies Journal 3(6).
Al Fiky, A. I. (2011). Blended Learning: Educational Design, Multi-media, Creative Thinking. Amman (Jordan): Dar Athaqafa for publishing and distribution.
Al-Haq A., F. & Al-Sobh A., M. (2010). The effect of a web-based writing instructional EFL program on enhancing the performance of Jordanian secondary students. The JALT CALL Journal 6(3) : 189–218.
Al-Jarf, R. (2004). The Effect of Web-based Learning on Struggling EFL College Writers. Foreign Language Annals 37(1): 49-57. Retrieved February 6th, 2013 from:
Al-Jazar, A. A. (2002). The Effectiveness of Using Multi-media Computer Aided Teaching in Acquiring Some Scientific Concepts Levels According to "Febrayer" Model to evaluate these concepts. Education Journal, Al-Azhar University (125).
Al-Masry, N. M. S. (2012). The Effectiveness of Using Blended Learning in Teaching A unit in English language in Second Secondary Class in Mecca. Unpublished Master Degree, Faculty of Education, Mecca, Om El-Qura University.
Angelillo, J. (2002)." A Fresh Approach to Teaching Punctuation: Helping Young Writers Use Conventions With Precision", New York: Scholastic, Inc.
Bates, A.W. (2000). Managing Technological Change: Strategies for College and University Leaders. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Bath, D. & Bourke, J. (2010).Getting started with blended learning. Australia: Griffith Institute for Higher Education.
Bersin &Associates (2003). Blended Learning: what works? Retrieved March 21st from
Billigmeier, G.M. (2011). Blended Learning: Design and Implementation. Retrieved March 26th, 2013 from
Bonk, C. J., Graham, C. R. (2006). The handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs. San Francisco: Pfieffer.
Carroll. R. T. 1990. "Students Success Guide: Writing Skills." Retrieved March 30th, 2013 from skills.pdf.
Chastain, K. (1988). Developing Second Language Skills: Theory and Practice. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
DeLacey, B.J., & D.A. Leonard (2002). Case study on technology and distance in education at the Harvard Business School. Educational Technology and Society, 5) 2(: 13–28
Dixon (1986). Teaching Composition to Large Classes. English Teaching Forum, 25(3): 22-43.
Driscoll, M. (2002). Blended learning: Let’s get beyond the hype. Learning and training innovations news line. Retrieved March 22nd, 2013 from
Dziuban, C. D., Hartman, J. L. & Moskal, P. D. (2004). Blended Learning. Retrieved March 2nd, 2013 from Educause
Finn, A. & Bucceri, M. (2004). A case study approach to blended learning. Los Angeles: Centra Software. Retrieved March 3rd, 2013 from
Gamble, Valerie J. (2005). The effectiveness of blended learning for the employee. Dissertation Unpublished. Fielding Graduate University.
Garrison, R., & Vaughan, H. (2008). Blended learning in higher education: Framework, principles and guidelines. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gebhardt, R. C. & Rodrigues, D. (1989). Writing processes and Intentions. America: D. C. Health and company.
Gould, T. (2003). Hybrid classes: Maximizing institutional resources and student learning. Proceedings of the 2003 ASCUE Conference, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Retrieved March 8th, 2013 from
Graham, C. R., & Robinson, R. (2007). Realizing the transformational potential of blended learning. In Blended Learning Research Perspectives (83-110). Needham, MA: The Sloan Consortium.
Graham, C.R. (2004). Blended learning systems: Definition, current trends, and future directions. In The handbook of blended learning: Global perspectives, local designs, ed. C.J.Bonk and C.R. Graham, 3–21. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Retrieved March 23rd, 2013 from
Halliday, M., & Hasan, R. (1985). Language, context, and text: Aspects of language in a social semiotic perspective. Deakin: Deakin University.
Haring L. W. (1994).Personalizing Education, New York, Hudelson, S.: Write on children writing in ESL, center for applied linguistics, USA, New Jersey, Prentice Hall Regents.
Harmer, J. (2001). "How to Teach English." An Introduction to the Practice of English Language Teaching. Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited.
Hofmann J. (2011). Top 10 Challenges of Blended Learning. Retrieved March 23rd, 2013 from
Hooper, S. (1992). Cooperation learning and computer-based instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 40(3): 21–38.Retrieved April 6th, 2013 from
Huang, R. H., Zhou, Y. L., & Wang, Y. (2006). Blended Learning: Theory into Practice. Beijing: Higher Education Press.
Johnstone, K.M. et. al (2002). Effects of Repeated Practice and Contextual-Writing Experiences on College Pupils' Writing Skills. Journal of educational psychology, 94(2): 305-313.
Jolliffe, A., Ritter, J., & Stevens, D. (2001). The Online Learning Handbook Developing and Using Web-Based Learning. London: Kogan Page.
Joy-Matthews, J., Megginson, D., & Surtees, M. (2004). Human resource development (3rd ed.). London: Kogan Page.
Kaoud, A. A. E. (2007). The Effectiveness of Internet Blended Discussion Group on Developing Some Composition Writing Skills of First Year Secondary School Students. Retrieved April 3rd, 2013 from
Kendall, M. (2001). Teaching online to campus-based students: The experience of using WebCT for the community information module at Manchester Metropolitan University. Education for Information, 19(4): 325–346.
Kerres, M., & De Witt, C. (2003). A didactical framework for the design of blended learning arrangements. Journal of Educational Media, 28(2/3): 101–113.
King, G. (2003)." Good Writing Guide". Updated ed., Glasgow: Harper Collins Publishers.
Kocoglu, Z., Ozek, Y. and Kesli, Y. (2011). Blended learning: Investigating its potential in an English language teacher training program. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(7): 1124-1134.
Lindsay, C. & Knight, P. (2006). Learning and Teaching English. A Course for Teachers, Oxford University Press
Min, W. & Li, J. Z. (2007). Implicit Part of Process Writing in Academic English Writing. US-China Foreign Language 5(8).
NACOL. (2008). Fast facts about online learning (Issue report,1-6). Vienna: North American Council for Online Learning. Retrieved March 5th, 2013, from http://
Norman, R.; Singer, D.; McPherson, C. and Bradburn, K. (2005). Project-oriented Technical Writing, 5th Edition. Huntsville: University of Alabama.
Oblender, Th. (2002). A hybrid Course Model: One Solution to the High Online dropout Rate. Learning with Technology, 29(6): 42-46.
Olshtain, E. (2001). Functional tasks for mastering the mechanics of writing and going just beyond. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed., 207-217). United Sates: Heinle & Heinle.
Osguthorpe, R. T. and Graham, C. R., (2003). Blended learning environments: Definitions and directions. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 4( 3): 227-233.
Palmer, D. (1986). Writing Skills, at the chalk face; Practical Techniques in Language Teaching. London: Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd.
Richards, J. (1990). The language teaching matrix. England: Cambridge University press.
Richards, J. C.( 2003). Second Language Writing. Ken Hyland: Cambridge Language Education.
Richards, J.C., & Renandya, W.A. (Eds.). (2005).Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (5th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rossett, A., Douglis, F., & Frazee, R. V. (2003). Strategies for building blended learning. Learning Circuits. Retrieved April 27th, 2013 from
Rovai, A., & Jordan, H. (2004). Blended learning and sense of community: A comparative analysis with traditional and fully online graduate courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 5 (2). Retrieved April 3rd, 2013 from:
Saade, R.G. and Kira, D. (2009). Computer anxiety ine-learning: The effect of computer self-efficacy. Journal of Information Technology Education (8): 177-190.
Saunders, G., & Klemming, F. (2003). Integrating technology into a traditional learning environment. Active Learning in Higher Education, 4(1): 74–86.
Sayed, E.. A. A. (2012). The Effect of Using Electronic Portfolios on Developing the English Language Writing Skills for Second Grade Preparatory School Students. Retrieved April 3rd, 2013 from
Sharma, Pete & Barrett, Barney (2007). Blended Learning: Using technology in and beyond the language classroom. London: Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Shih, R. (2011). Can Web 2.0 technology assist college students in learning English writing? Integrating Face book and peer assessment with blended learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(5): 829-845.
Sokolik, M. (2003). Writing. Practical English Language Teaching. Edited by D Nunan. New York: McGraw-Hill, 87-108.
Sun, T. (2003) Read Me First! A Style Guide for the Computer Industry, Chapter One. Second Edition., New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Tang, X. (2006). Principles in Teaching Process. Writing in a Learner-Centered Classroo, 3 (2), (Serial No.26) East China Jiao Tong University.
Wenger, E. (1999). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186