In Ethiopia, root and tuber crops play a significant role for food and nutritional security by filling food shortage that might exist until harvest of major crops. The objective was to review the Plectranthus edulis, Cocciniaabyssinica and Dioscoreaabyssinica tubers which are indigenous crops to Ethiopia with good nutritional value and drought tolerance. Plectranthus edulis, Cocciniaabyssinica and Dioscoreaabyssinica are a good sources of carbohydrate, minerals and fiber. Little is known about the contribution of these crops to food and nutritional security, nutritional value and major limiting factors to their wider utilization in Ethiopia. These crops are generally regarded as poor man’s food and remain neglected compared to other food crops in human diet. The anti-nutritional factors available in these indigenous crops can be reduced by different processing methods like fermentation, boiling and cooking to tolerable level. The generated information will give insights for their development, promotion and wider utilization to support food insecurity crises and calorie gap for the fast growing population in Ethiopia. Generally, the Plectranthus edulis, Cocciniaabyssinica and Dioscoreaabyssinica tubers crop have appreciable nutritional composition of foods, minerals, ant nutritional factors and they are also used to maintain the fractured bone of human being. Thus, the crops should be included in people’s daily diet and solve the food insecurity problems in the country. All the stakeholders should give due enphasis to these indegenous crops and process to different food products.
Demelash Hailu Mitiku,
Ayana Fikadu Roro,
Nutritional Potential and Antnutritional Factors of Plectranthus edulis, Cocciniaabyssinica and Dioscoreaabyssinica Tubers: A Review, Science Research.
Vol. 8, No. 1,
2020, pp. 7-13.
Abera, H. (1995). Anchote-An Endemic Tuber Crop. (S. Edwards, G. Mirutse, & T. Yilma, Eds.). Jimma College of Agriculture, Jimma, Ethiopia.
Abera, G. & Gudeta, H. (2007). Response of Anchote (Coccinia Abyssinica) to Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Rates and Plant Population Density in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. East African Journal of Sciences, 1 (2), 120-126.
Abera, G. & Haile, D. (2015). Yield and nutrient concentration of Anchote [Cocciniaabyssinica (Lam.) Cogn.] affected by harvesting dates and in-situ storage. African Journal of Crop Science, 3 (5), 156-161.
Adebowale AA-R, Wahab AB, Sobukola PO, et al. The antinutritional and vitamincomposition of high-quality yam flour as affected by yam specie, pretreatment, and drying method. Food Science and Nutrition. 2018; 6: 1985–1990. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.619
Abdel-Mogib M, Albar H, Batterjee S. 2002. Chemistry of the genus Plectranthus. Molecules 7 (2): 271–301.
Adugna Mosissa, Yetenayet Bekele, Tarekegn Berhanu. Food and Nutrition Security Potential of Anchote (Cocciniaabyssinica); A Tuberous Crop Indigenous to Ethiopia: A Review. International Journal of Food Engineering and Technology. Vol. 7, No. 2, 2019, pp. 34-38. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20190702.12
Allemann, J., Hammes, P. S., 2003. Chemical composition of south africanPlectranthusesculentus tubers. S. Afr. J. Sci. 99 (3–4), 127–129.
Amsalu N, Weyessa G, Assefa T, Wubishet A, Asfaw K and Edossa E, Variety development of taro, cassava, yam and indigenous root and tuber crops of Ethiopia, In root and tuber crops: The UntrappedResoucres, edited by Gebremedhin Woldegoirgis, EndaleGebreabdBergaLemaga, (Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Resources, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia), 2008, 303-315.
Asfaw, Z. (1997). Conservation and use of traditional vegetables in Ethiopia. In L. Guarino (Ed.), Traditional African vegetables: Proceedings of the IPGRI International Workshopon genetic resources of traditional vegetables in Africa Conservation and use (pp. 57-65). Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF-HQ.
Atnafua Bekele, Endashaw Bekele. Proximate and Mineral Composition Variability in Ethiopian Yam (Dioscoreaspp). Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2018, pp. 12-17. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20180601.12
Ayalew, Y. (2016). Nutritional and Phytochemical Evaluation of Anchote (Cocciniaabyssinica) (Lam.) (Cogn.) Accessions to Promote its Contribution for Food Security and Medicinal Use. PhD Dissertation in Food Science and Nutrition, Addis Ababa University.
Baquar, S., Oke, O. (1977). Mineral constituents of Nigerian Yams. Nutr Rep Int 15: 265-272.
Burger W Families of Flowering Plants in Ethiopia”, Oklahoma State University Press, Stillwater, Oklahoma, 1967.
Chandrasekara, A., & Kumar, T. J. (2016). Roots and Tuber Crops as Functional Foods : A Review on Phytochemical Constituents and Their Potential Health Benefits. International Journal of Food Science, 2016.
Daba, M., Derebew, B., Wesene, G., & Waktole, S. (2012). Growth and Yield Performance ofAnchote in Response to Contrasting Environment. pdf. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences.
Dandena, G. (2010). Shifting to alternative food source : Potential to overcome Ethiopians malnutrition and poverty problems. ISDA 2010, Jun 2010, Montpellier, France. CiradInra-SupAgro, 10 P., 10–p.
Desta, F. (2011). Phenotypic and Nutritional Characterization of Anchote [Cocciniaabyssinica (Lam.) Cogn] Accessions of Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis for the Degree of Masterof Science in Horticulture (Vegetable Science). Jimma University, Ethiopia.
Edem, I. D & Nkereuwem, M. E. (2015). Crucial Roles of Tuber Crops and the Development Activities in the Global Food System. American Journal of Agricultural Science, 2 (2), 42-49.
EHNRI. (1997). Food composition table for use in Ethiopia. Part III. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Elisabeth Anne Hildebrand (2003). Motives and opportunities for domestication: an ethno archaeology-cal study in southwest Ethiopia. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 22 (2003) 358–375.
Fekadu, D. (2011). Phenotypic and Nutritional Characterization of Anchote [Cocciniaabyssinica (Lam.) Cogn] Accessions of Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis, Jimma University, Ethiopia.
Fekadu, H. (2014). Nutritional composition, antinutritionalfactors and effect of boiling on nutritional composition of Anchote (CocciniaAbyssinica) tubers. Food Science and Quality Management, 26, 25-38.
Getachew, O. (2001). Food Source Diversification: Potential to Ameliorate the Chronic Food Insecurity in Ethiopia. In The Potential of Indigenous Wild Foods. WorkshopProceedings, 22-26 January 2001 (pp. 12–30).
Gebremedhin, W., Endale, G., & Lemaga, B. (2008). Potato variety development. Root andtuber crops: The untapped resources. EIAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
GFDRE. (2009). Food Security Programme 2010-2014 Productive Safety Net.
Gebre-Mariam T and PC Schmidt Some physico-chemical properties of Dioscorea starch from Ethiopia. Starch – Stärke 1998; 50: 241–246.
Hahn, S. (1995). Yams. In: Evolution of crop plants, Smartt J and Simmonds NW (eds.) second edition 6 Longman Group Limited, UK.
Mekbib, Y. & Deressa, T. (2016). Exploration and collection of root and tuber crops in east Wollega and Ilu Ababora Zones: Rescuing declining genetic resource. Indian Journal ofTraditional Knowledge, 15 (1), 86-92
Mengesha, D., Belew, D., Gebreselessie, W. and Sori, W. (2012). Growth and Yield Performance of Anchote [Cocciniaabyssinica (Lam.) Cogn.] in Response to Contrasting. Asian Journal of Plant Science, 11 (4), 172-181.
NBSAP, Ethiopia National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, (Institute of Biodiversity conservation, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia), 2005.
Okwu, D. E., & Ndu, C. U. (2006). Evaluation of the phytonutrients, mineral and vitamin contents of some varieties of Yam (Dioscoreaspp.). International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Sciences, 2, 199–203.
Onwume., I. (1978). The tropical tuber crops: Yams, cassava, sweet potato and coco yams. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Okwu, D. E., & Omodamiro, O. D. (2005). Effects of hexane extract and phytochemical content of XylopiaaethiopicaandOcinumgratissimumon the uterus of guinea pig. Bio Research, 3, 40–44
Parmar, A., Gebre, A. B., Legesse, A., Demelash, Y., Fladung, K. and Hensel, O. (2017). Nutritional Comparison of White and Red CocciniaAbyssinica (Lam.) Cong. Accessions: AnUnder-Utilised Edible Tuber of the Ethiopian Highlands. Communication, Foods 2017, 6, 71.
Taye, M., Lommen, W. J. M., Struik, P. C., 2012a. Effects of shoot tipping on development and yield of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge 150, 484–494
Scott, G. J., Rosegrant, M. W., & Ringler, C. (2000). Global projections for root and tuber crops to the year 2020 the year 2020. Food Policy, 25 (5), 561–597.
Wheatly, C., Scoot, G. J., & Wiersema, S. (1995). Adding value to root and tuber crops: Amanual on product development. CIAT. Cali, Colombia.
Wanasundera, J. and Ravindran, G. (1994). Nutritional assessment of yam (Dioscoreaalata) tubers. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 46 (1), 33–39. Quoted in Jane N. (2010). Yam Nutrition, nutrient disorders and soil fertility management. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
Yeshitila N and Temesgen D (2015). Exploration and collection of root and tuber crops in East Wollega and IlluAbabora Zones: Rescuring declining genetic resources. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. vol 15 (1), pp. 86-92.
Zinash, D. (2008). Minimizing Postharvest Losses in Yam (Dioscorea spp.). In: Using Food Science and Technology to Improve Nutrition and Promote National Development, Robertson, G. L. & Lupien, J. R. (Eds), International Union of Food Science & Technology.
FAO, (1990). Roots, tubers, plantain and bananas inhuman, Nutrition. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (FAO), Rome Italy
Adebooye, O. C., & Phillips, O. T. (2006). Studies on seed characteristics and chemical composition of three morphotypes of Mucunaurens (L.) Medikus. Fabaceae. Food Chemistry, 95 (4), 658–663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.02.005.
IBC (2012) ‘Ethiopia: Third Country Report On The State Of Plant Genetic Resources For Food And Agriculture
Girma, A., & Hailu, G. (2007). Response of Anchote (Coccinia Abyssinica) to Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Rates and Plant Population Density in Western Oromia, Ethiopia. East African Journal of Sciences, 1 (2), 120–126.
Melaku, Y. and Duguma, T. (2016) ‘Proximate Composition, Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activities of the Tubers of Plectrantus edulis’, 5 (12), pp. 13–17.
Taye M., Lommen W. J. M. and Struik P. C. (2007). Indigenous Multiplication and Production Practices for the Tuber Crop Plectranthus Edulis in Chencha and Wolaita. Southern Ethiopia, Expl Agric., 43, 381–400.
Orkwor, G. C, R. Asiedu and I. J Ekanayakeeds (1998). Food Yams: Advances in Research, IITA, Ibadan and NRCRI, Umudike, Nigeria. 249p.
Shebabaw. H., 2013. Effect of Processing on Physicochemical and Antinutritional Factors of “Anchote” (CocciniaAbyssinica) and Development of Value Added Biscuit, PhD thesis.
Francis, G., Makkar, H. P., & Becker, K. (2001). Antinutritional factors present in plant derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture, 199 (3), 197– 227.
Afiukwa et al., 2013. Proximate and Mineral Element Compositions of Five Edible Wild Grown Mushroom Species in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and ChemicalSciencesVolume 4 Issue 2 Page No. 1056
Catherine A. Rice-evans, Nicholas J. Miller, Paul G. Bolwell, Peter M. Bramley & John B. Pridham (1995) The Relative Antioxidant Activities of Plant-Derived Polyphenolic Flavonoids, Free Radical Research, 22: 4, 375-383, DOI: 10.3109/10715769509145649
Yadessa Melaku and Tolessa Duguma, 2016. Proximate Composition, Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activities of the Tubers of PlectrantusedulisInt. Res. J. Biological Vol. 5 (12), 13-17Sci.
Bouba A. A., Njintang N. Y., Foyet H. M., Scher J., Montet D. and Mbofung C. M. F. (2012). Proximate Composition, Mineral and Vitamin Content of Some Wild Plants Used as Spices in Cameroon. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 3, 423-432.
Oboh, G. (2006). Nutritive value, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Struchiumsparganophora leaves. Journal of Medicinal Food, 9 (2), 276–280.
Gifty, A. G, Bruno andTemesgen, 2018. Variation in tuber proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids and amino acids of eight Oromo dinich (Plectranthus edulis) landraces experimentally grown in Ethiopia
Lewu, M. N. Adebola, P. O. and Afolayan, A. J. Effect of cooking on the proximate composition of theleaves of some accessions of Colocasiaesculenta (L.) Schott in Kwa Zulu-Natal province of South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (8), pp. 1619-1622, 20 April, 2009 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals
Abera. k, Crespo O, Seid. J and Mequanent. F, 2018. Simulating the impact of climate change on maize production in Ethiopia, East Africa. Eniviromental Systems Research.
Motarjemi, Y., 2002. Impact of small scale fementation technology on food safety in developing countries. International Journal of Microbiology., 75: 213-229.
Udensi, E. A. and Okoronkwo, K. A. (2006). Effects of fermentation and germination on the physicochemical properties of Mucunacochinchinensis protein isolate. African J. Of Biotech. 5: 896-900.
Bhandari M, Kawabata J (2004) Assessment of antinutritional factors and bioavailability of calcium and Zinc in wild yam. Food Chem 85: 281-287.
Charles AL, Chang YH, Ko WC, Sriroth K, Huang TC (2004). Some physical and chemical properties of starch isolates of cassava genotypes. Starch/Starke. 56: 413-418.