Volume 5, Issue 3, June 2017, Pages: 36-43
Received: Aug. 7, 2017;
Published: Aug. 7, 2017
Views 2038 Downloads 149
Azzlia Mohd Unaini, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Muhammad Rizal Razali, Corporate Planning Division, National Hydraulic Institute of Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Thamer Ahmed Mohammed Ali, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Aidi Hizami Alias, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Ernaleza Mahsum, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
The rainwater harvesting system is an alternative way to meet domestic water demand. At the same time, it can also help in reducing run-off, especially in urban areas. In this study, a rainwater harvesting system, which located at the Faculty of Engineering, was taken as a case study. Indicators that measure the performance of the rainwater harvesting system have been developed. One such indicators are reliability, which is dependent on the rainfall and water consumption patterns, tank size and effective roof area. Flow meter and rain gauge used to measure the volume of harvested rainwater and collect the rainfall depth data respectively. In this study also, a model is developed to predict the volume of rainwater harvesting with respect to the rainfall depth with a particular roof catchment. It demonstrates good fits with R2 = 0.952. The reliability of rainwater harvesting using existing tank 4.08 m3 is 60.8%, 66.5%, 67.7% and 98.2% for Consumption 1 (flushing toilets, gardening and washing vehicle), Consumption 2 (flushing toilets and gardening), Consumption 3 (gardening and washing vehicle) and Consumption 4 (flushing toilets and washing vehicle) respectively. The run-off coefficient for the selected roof is found to be 0.92.
Azzlia Mohd Unaini,
Muhammad Rizal Razali,
Thamer Ahmed Mohammed Ali,
Aidi Hizami Alias,
Assessment on the Performance of a Rainwater Harvesting System, Science Research.
Vol. 5, No. 3,
2017, pp. 36-43.
Aaron, L., Kirsten, S., & Dave, R. A guidebook of resources and considerations for rainwater catchment, roof gardens and solar power, compiled and written by ingrid severson with excerpts from tapping the potential of urban rooftops.
Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia. (2009) Rainwater harvesting, guidebook planning and design.
Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia. (2012) urban stormwater management manual for Malaysia, MSMA 2nd Edition. Kuala Lumpur: DID Malaysia.
Dixon A., Butler D., Fewkes A. (1999). Water saving potential of domestic water reuse systems using greywater and rainwater in combination, Water Science and Technology, 39 (5), 25-32.
Fewkes, A. (1999). The use of rainwater for WC flushing: The field-testing of a collection system. Building and Environment, 34, 765-772.
Hwa, N. W. (2009). Reliability and assessment of rainwater harvesting system at the Faculty of Engineering, PhD Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
Manoj, K. J., & Nishant, S. (2015). Evaluating Rainwater Harvesting System for School Buildings. American Journal of Envoronment Sciences, Vol. 11 (4), p. p. 256-261.
Micheal, V., & Stuart, P. (2004). Water accounting in Australia, London Group Meeting, Denmark, Australian Bureau of Statistic.
Noorayuzlina, M. Y. (2011). Study on reliability of rainwater harvesting system. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
Numerical Weather Prediction Development Section, Technical Development Division, Malaysian Meteorological Department, & Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. (2009). Climate change scenarios for Malaysia 2001-2099, Scientific Report. Unit Percetakan, Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia.
Pawar, C. B., Patil, S. S., & Pawar, R. P. (2014). A Case Study of Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting of Renavi Village in Sangli District of Western Maharashtra: New Approach of Watershed Development in India. African Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. 9 (25), p. p. 1941-1947.
Raj Kamal, B. (2016). Domestic Rainwater Harvesting- A Review. International Journal of Engineering Technology Science and Research, Vol. 3 (5), p. p. 193-199.
Shittu, O. I., Okareh, O. T., & Coker, A. O. (2015). Development of Rainwater Harvesting Technology for Securing Domestic Water Supply in Ibadan, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Engineering Science, Technology and Innovation, Vol. 4 (1), p. p. 32-37.
Syafiqa, A., & Siti Nazahiyah, R. (2017), Rainwater Harvesting and Groundwater Potential as Alternatives Water Resources in Malaysia: A Review, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. MATEC Web of Conference 103, 04020.
Tulinave, B. M., Han, M. Y., & Zacharia, K. (2016). Strategy to Overcome Barriers of Rainwater Harvesting, Case Study Tanzania. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, Vol. 4, p. p. 13-23.