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Development of Effective Urinal Odour Traps for Conventional Household Urinals, Urine Diversion Dry Toilets (UDDT) and Community Urine Collection Tanks
Science Research
Volume 4, Issue 3, June 2016, Pages: 79-87
Received: May 7, 2016; Accepted: May 16, 2016; Published: Jun. 13, 2016
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Ababu T. Tiruneh, University of Swaziland, Department of Environmental Health Science, Mbabane, Swaziland
William N. Ndlela, University of Swaziland, Department of Environmental Health Science, Mbabane, Swaziland
Jonna Heikkilä, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Technology Environment and Business, Turku, Finland
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Control of odour from urinal installations is an important task from considerations of health, hygiene and acceptability or use of these installations. Because of the problems associated with cost, technology and proprietary nature of many of the marketed technologies for odour control, there is a need to develop simple, easily adaptable and low cost technologies for odour traps in urinal installations. A research work was carried out for the development of simple and low cost odour control using devices that work on the principles of either buoyant force or gravity push combined with elastic band extension. The conceptual development of the odour trapping device arrangement and of the odour trapping mechanism is presented. The scientific model for determining the optimum elastic band extension for effective odour control is developed. Experiments were performed to verify the theoretical model relating force required for opening the odour trap with the optimum elastic band extension length. The experimental results were also used to determine the model parameters through regression. Different types of odour control devices were developed and installed to adapt to differing urinal installations including household level urinals, urine diversion dry toilets (UDDT) and community urine collection storage tanks. The devices, besides being simple and low cost, have more or less been found to work satisfactorily and effectively control odour from the urinal installations that they have been provided to.
Odour Control, Ammonia, Urinals, UDDT, Urine Smell, Toilets, Urine Tanks
To cite this article
Ababu T. Tiruneh, William N. Ndlela, Jonna Heikkilä, Development of Effective Urinal Odour Traps for Conventional Household Urinals, Urine Diversion Dry Toilets (UDDT) and Community Urine Collection Tanks, Science Research. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp. 79-87. doi: 10.11648/
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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