Physical-Chemical and Bacterial Contamination Levels in Mzinga River Catchments of the Southern Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania: Public Health Implications
Science Research
Volume 3, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 283-288
Received: Sep. 24, 2015; Accepted: Oct. 9, 2015; Published: Oct. 22, 2015
Views 4107      Downloads 106
Author
Josephat Alexander Saria, Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environmental Studies, The Open University of Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Water is an appreciated natural resource for the survival of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is therefore of special importance. In this study Mzinga River and its tributaries water samples were collected at a weekly interval from 2nd November 2014 to 6th December 2014 and analyzed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollutants. Total and faecal bacteria were analyzed using membrane techniques while physical chemical parameters were analyzed using specified standard methods. The water pH was found to range from 6.09±0.08 to 7.05±0.06 which is slightly acidic though it is within the acceptable WHO limits of 6.5-8.5. The mean values of ammonium and phosphate varied between 4.50±0.03 mg/l to 6.50±0.04 and 7.18±0.27 to 9.70±0.12 respectively. Both of these are higher than Tanzania acceptable limits (2mg/l and 5mg/l respectively). The mean result of the analysis of the water samples for total coliform ranges from 14.17±4.06 CFU/100ml to 486.80±102.32 CFU/100ml, while faecal coliform ranges from 2.78±1.03 CFU/100ml to 120.36±4.50 CFU/100ml. The bacteriological contamination was due to the fact that Mzinga river is passing through a populated urban area thereby more exposed to direct sewage disposal and incoming industrial effluents. These results implicate the probability of people around these areas being prone to water-borne infections such as diarrhea or cholera.
Keywords
Cholera, Faecal Coliform, Mzinga, Phosphate, BOD5
To cite this article
Josephat Alexander Saria, Physical-Chemical and Bacterial Contamination Levels in Mzinga River Catchments of the Southern Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania: Public Health Implications, Science Research. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 283-288. doi: 10.11648/j.sr.20150306.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Freitas A. (2013), Water as a Stress Factor in Sub-Saharan Africa http://www.iss.europa.eu/uploads/media/Brief_12.pdf (Accessed on 13th June 2015).
[2]
WHO (2011), Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. 4th edition. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[3]
WHO (1997) WHO Guide Lines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Grey water: Wastewater Use in Agriculture, Volume II, World Health Organization, France, 22p.
[4]
Wright, J. A, Yang, H., Rivett, U. and Gundry, S. W. (2012), Public Perception of Drinking Water Safety in South Africa 2002–2009: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study, BMC Public Health 12: 556-564.
[5]
Nelson, A. W., Feazel, L. M., Robertson, C. E., Spear, J. R. and Frank, D. N. (2012), Microbiological Water Quality Monitoring in a Resource-Limited Urban Area: A Study in Cameroon, Africa, The Journal of Public Health in Africa 3(2) 80-85.
[6]
Napacho, Z. A. and Manyele, S. V. (2010), Quality Assessment of Drinking Water in Temeke District (Part II): Characterization of Chemical Parameters, African Journal of Env Sc and Tech 4(11), 775-789.
[7]
Vital, M., Füchslin H. P., Hammes F., Egli, T. (2007), Growth of Vibrio Cholerae O1 Ogawa Eltor in Freshwater, Microbiology, 153 (Pt 7): 1993-2001.
[8]
Selma, M.V., Allende, A., Lopez-Galvez, F., Elizaquivel, P., Aznar, R. and Gil, M., I. (2007), Potential Microbial Risk Factors Related to Soil Amendments and Irrigation Water of Potato Crops, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103: 2542-2549.
[9]
Ajayi, A.O., Balogun, S.A. and Adegbehingbe, K. (2008), Microorganisms in the Crude Oil- Poducing Areas of Ondo State, Nigeria. Scientific Research and Essay 3(5) 174-179.
[10]
Udousoro, I. I., Ekop, U. R. and Udo, J. E. (2013) Effect of Thermal Processing on Anti-nutrients in Common Edible Green Leafy Vegetables Grown in Ikot Abasi, Nigeria, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 12(2): 162-167.
[11]
Taylor, B., (2009) Addressing the Sustainability Crisis: Lessons from Research on Managing Rural Water Projects; Water Aid.
[12]
Atio, A. (1997), Special Issue: Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health, Sci. Total Environ., 199, 1–226.
[13]
Maheshwari, M. R. C. (2006), Fluoride in Drinking Water and its Removal, Journal of Hazardous Materials, B137: 456–463
[14]
Kass, Y. Y.; Gavrieli, A. and Vengosh, A. S (2005), The Impact of Freshwater and Wastewater Irrigation on the Chemistry of Shallow Groundwater: A Case Study from the Israeli Coastal Aquifer, J. Hydrol. 3(1–4) 314–331.
[15]
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (1991). Rehabilitation of Dar es Salaam Water Supply System in the United.
[16]
Howard, H. (1967), Future Sources of Water Supply for Dar es Salaam. Consultancy Report, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
[17]
Raja, P. Muhindhar A. A., Elangovan, R. and M. Palanivel (2008), Evaluation of physical Physical and chemical Chemical parameters Parameters of River Kaveri, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India, Journal of Environmental Biology, 29(5) 765-768.
[18]
Abbu, A. A. and Lyimo, T. J. (2007), Assessment of Faecal Bacteria Contamination in Sewage and Non-sewage Impacted Mangroves Ecosystem along the Coast of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Journal of Science, 33, 27-40.
[19]
Richard, F., McGary, M., Mara, D. (1977), Water, Wastes and Health in Hot Climates, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York.
[20]
APHA, (2005), Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th Ed., American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA) and Water Pollution Control Federation (WPCF), Washington, D.C.
[21]
Angerer, J. K. and Schaller, K. H.(1995), Analyses of Hazardous Substances in Biological Materials, Vol. 1, VCH, Weinheim, Germany.
[22]
TBS (Tanzania Bureau of Standard) (1997), Finalized Tanzania Standard Specifications for Natural Mineral Water.
[23]
Attab, A. (1995), Physico-chemistry of Four Lentic Freshwater Bodies Infested by Varying Dominant Biota with Emphasis on the Impact and Causes of Proliferation of Dominant Biota, IJEP, 8, 99-104.
[24]
Alam, J. B.; Islam, M. R.; Muyen, Z. Mamun, M. and Islam, S. (2007), Water Quality Parameters along Rivers, Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 4 (1): 159-167.
[25]
Gordon, M.F., John, C. G., Daniel, A. G. (1966), Water and Waste Water Engineering. , John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York.
[26]
Dwight, R., Semenza, J, Barker, D. and Olson, B. (2002), Association of Urban Run-off with Coastal Water quality in Orange Country, California, Water Environ Res. 74, 82-90.
[27]
Scott, C. A., Faruqui, N. I. and Raschid-Sally, L. (2004), Wastewater use in Irrigated Agriculture, Management Challenges in Developing Countries p.110, in Scott, C.A., Faruqui, N.I. and Raschid-Sally, L. (ed) Wastewater Use in Irrigated Agriculture: Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities, CABI Publishing, Oxford Shire, United Kingdom.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186