Spatial and Temporal Variations of Phytoplankton Communities and Environmental Conditions Along the Coastal Area of Alexandria
Volume 3, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 273-282
Received: Sep. 16, 2015;
Accepted: Sep. 28, 2015;
Published: Oct. 16, 2015
Views 3992 Downloads 133
Edweb Ali Salem Dango, High Institute in Jerpoly area, Tripoli, Libya
Mahmoud Salem Ibrahim, Environmental Science Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt
Nabila R. Hussein, National Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries, Kayet Bay, Alexandria, Egypt
Maie Ibrahim ElGammal, Environmental Science Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, Damietta, Egypt
Mohamed Abel Aziz Okbah, National Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries, Kayet Bay, Alexandria, Egypt
This paper studied the spatial and temporal variations of phytoplankton communities and environmental conditions. This study focuses on the Spatio-temporal distribution of phytoplankton community structure and environmental conditions (physical conditions, and nutrient availability) along Alexandria coastal area (from Abu Qir in the east to eastern harbor in the west) over one year 2013-2014. The study results gave a signal of the area is light to moderate polluted and emphasized the need of use phytoplankton community as index of water quality. A total of 153 phytoplankton taxa were identified belonging to73 genera (6 Classes); Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Silicoflagellata. Bacillariophyceae recorded the main bulk, while the others were limited and showed an indication of pollution. The total average density (60.7x103units l-1) was mainly a reflection of the trends in counts of Bacillariophyceae (58.03x103units l-1). Species diversity (H’) ranged between 0.21 and 3.59. The most obvious impact of the previously described physical and chemical features is on the distribution of phytoplankton biomass derived from Chl-a concentration (ranged; 0.92-4.27µgL-1). The concentrations of the nutrient salts displayed significant seasonal variation. The results revealed that the values of salinity, DO, temperature and pH were in the ranges: from (35.34 to 38.28 ‰), (4.77 and 11.13 mgl-1), (18.20 and 27.5 °C), and (7.53 to 8.12), respectively In general, the results indicated that the amounts of ammonia decreased as follows: winter < spring < autumn < summer (ranged; 0.14-5.16 µM), while nitrate were as follows: spring < autumn < summer < winter (ranged; 3.69 -19.66 µM), and the PO4-P content were arranged as follows: spring < autumn < winter < summer (ranged; 0.13 -0.79 µM).
Edweb Ali Salem Dango,
Mahmoud Salem Ibrahim,
Nabila R. Hussein,
Maie Ibrahim ElGammal,
Mohamed Abel Aziz Okbah,
Spatial and Temporal Variations of Phytoplankton Communities and Environmental Conditions Along the Coastal Area of Alexandria, Science Research.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2015, pp. 273-282.
Abd-Alla, M. (1993).Concentration of mercury in fresh, brackish and saline water in Alexandria region. M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria Univ., Egypt, 145 pp.
Nasr, S. M. (1995).Geochemistry and granulometric normalization for heavy metals in the bottom sediments off Alexandria, Egypt. Proceeding of the 2ndConference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment. MEDCOAST 95, Tarragona, Spain, 1473-1481.
Vadrucci, R. V., Vignes, F. & Fiocca, A. (2003). Space–time patterns of co-variation of biodiversity and primary production guilds of coastal marine environments. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst., 13, 489–506.
Mathivanan, V., P. Vijayan, S., Sabhanayakam & Jeyachitra, O. (2007). An assessment of plankton population of Cauvery river with reference to pollution. J. Environ. Biol., 28, 523-526.
Shashi S., T.R., Kiran, B.R., Puttaiah, E.T., Shivaraj, Y. & Mahadevan, K.M. (2008). Phytoplankton as index of water quality with reference to industrial pollution. J. Environ. Biol., 29, 233-236.
Smayda, T. J. & Reynolds, C. S. (2001). Community assembly in marine phytoplankton: Application of recent models to harmful dinoflagellates blooms. J. Plankton Res., 23, 447–461.
Marie, G., Barbara K., Anne, G., Amandine, C., Jean, H. H., Sylvia, A. B. M., Pierre L. & Vanina P. (2014). Contrasting Patterns of Phytoplankton Assemblages in Two Coastal Ecosystems in Relation to Environmental Factors (Corsica, NW Mediterranean Sea) Diversity, 6, 296-322.
Pinazo, C., Marsaleix, P., Millet, B., Estournel, C., Kondrachoff, V. & Vehil, R. (2001). Phytoplankton variability in summer in the Northwestern Mediterranean: Modelling of the wind and freshwater impacts. J. Coast. Res., 17, 146–161.
Spatharis, S., Tsirtsis, G., Danielidis, D. B., Do Chi, T. & Mouillot, D. (2007). Effects of pulsed nutrient inputs on phytoplankton assemblage structure and blooms in an enclosed coastal area. Est. Coast. Shelf Sci., 73, 807–815.
Edweb A. S. D.; Ibrahim M. S.; Okbah M. A. & El Gmaal M. I. (2015). Distribution and Seasonal Variation of Nutrient Salts and Chlorophyll-a in Surface Seawater along Alexandria Costal Zone Area. Science Research, 3(4): 180-190.
Mikhail S. K. (2001). Phytoplankton variability in the Eastern Harbour of Alexandria during 2000, Bull. Natl. Oceanogr. Fish, A. R. E., 27, 32–52.
El-Sherif Z. & Mikhail S. K. (2003). Phytoplankton dynamics in the southwestern part of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt, Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 7 (1), 219–239.
Mikhail, S. K. (2003). First occurrence of some Alexandrium, Chattonella, Gymnodinium and Prorocentrum Species in Alexandria waters (Egypt). Mar.Life, 1(1-2)11-19.
Ismael A. A. & Dorgham M. M. (2003). Ecological indices as a tool for assessing pollution in El-Dekhaila Harbour (Alexandria, Egypt), Oceanologia, 45 (1), 121–131.
Dorgham M. M., Abdel-Aziz N. E., Okbah, M. A. (2004). Eutrophication problems in the Western Harbour of Alexandria, Egypt, Oceanologia, 46 (1), 25–44.
Gharib S. M. & Dorgham M. M. (2006). Eutrophication stress on phytoplankton community in the Western Harbour of Alexandria, Egypt, Int. J. Ocean Oceanogr., 1 (1), 261–273.
Shams El Din N. & Abdel Halim A. M. (2008). Changes in phytoplankton community structure at three touristic sites at western Alexandria Beach, Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 12 (4), 85–118.
Gharib S. M., El-Sherif Z. M., Abdel-Halim A. M. & Radwan A. A. (2011). Phytoplankton and environmental variables as a water quality indicator for the beaches at Matrouh, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt: an assessment Oceanologia, 53 (3): 819–836.
Hussein, N., R., (2000). Ecological and Physiological Studies on Phytoplankton in some Coastal areas around Alexandria. Ph. D. Thesis, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt: 282.
Hussein, N., R., (2008). Ecological indices as a tool for assessment Eutrophication problems in Alexandria's coastal water, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic research Vol.34 No.1: 86-107.
Khairy, H. M.; Hussein, N. R.; Faragallah, H. M. & Dorgham M. (2014). The phytoplankton communities in two eutrophic areas of the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast. Revista de Biología Marina y Oceanografía.Vol.49,2:267-277,agosto.
Grasshoff, K. (1979). Methods of sea water analysis with contributions by T. Almgreen; R. Dowson; M. Ehrhaedt; S.H. Fonselius; B. Josefsson, F. Koroleff, K. Kremling. Aufl. Weinheim. New York Verlag Chemie. 317 pp.
UNESCO. (1990). Reports and studies, No.34. Review of potentially harmful substances. Nutrients, 40pp.
Fahmy, M. A., Tayel, F. T., & Shriadah, M. A. (1997). Spatial and seasonal variations of dissolved trace metals in two contaminated basins of the coastal Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria, Egypt. Bulletin. Faculty of Science. Alexandria University, 37, 187–198.
Faragallah, H. M., H. R. Z. Tadros & M. A. Okbah (2009). Nutrient salts and chlorophyll-a during short term scale in the Eastern Harbor, Alexandria (Egypt). Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 35(3), 243-250.
Madkour, F; Dorgham, M & Fahmy, M. (2007). Short term scale observations on phytoplankton in the Eastern Harbour of Alexandria, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 33(1):193-209.
Fahmy, M. A., A.I.Beltagi & Abbas M. M. (1999). Nutrient salts and Chlorophyll-a in the Egyptian Mediterranean coastal waters. MEDCAST 99- EMECS99 Joint conferences, Land-Ocean Interactions: Managing Castal Ecosystems, 9-13 November, Antalya, Turkey.
Dorgham, M. M., Abdel-Aziz, N. E., El-Deeb, K. Z. & Okbah, M.A. (2004). Eutrophication problems in the Western Harbor of Alexandria, Egypt. Oceanologia, 46 (1): 25–44.
Abdel Aziz, N. E. M.; Fahmy, M. A. & Dorgham, M. M. (2001). Hydrography, nutrient levels and plankton abundance in Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt. Mediterranean Marine Science, 2 (2): 13-17.
Abdel Aziz, N. E. M.; Fahmy, M. A. & Dorgham, M. M. (2006). water quality observations on the Dekhaila Harbour, Alexandria, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 32 (2): 167-182.
Abdel-Halim, A.M. & Khairy, H.M. (2007). Potential impact of some abiotic parameters on a phytoplankton community in a confined bay of the Eastern Mediterranean sea: eastern Harbor of Alexandria Egypt. Mediterranean Marine Science, Vol. 8/2, 49-64.
Carlson, R. E. (1977). ‘Atrophic state index for lakes’, Limnology Oceanography 22(2): 361–369.
Mikhail's. K., Aboul Ezz, S. M. & Okbah, M. A. (2008). Blooms of toxic microalgae and cooccurringciliates, heterotrophic and mixotrophic dianoflagellates in the eastern harbor, Alexandria (Egypt). Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 34(2): 96-113.
Ignatiades, L., Karydis, M. & Vounatsou, P. (1992). A possible method for evaluating oligotrophy and eutrophication based on nutrient concentration scales. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 24(5): 238-43.
Zaghloul, F. A. (1994). Impact of pollution on phytoplankton in a coastal marine environment. Egypt. Jour. of Aquatic Research, 20(2):205-221.
Ogbeibu, A. E. & Edutie, L. O. (2002). Impact of brewery effluent on the water Quality and rotifers of Ikpoba River, Southern Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Pollution & Health 1 (1), 1 – 12.
Sabae, S. Z. & Rabeh S. A. (2000). Bacterial indices of sewage pollution inlake Qarun, Fayum, Egypt. Egypt J. Aquat. Biol. Fish., 4, 103-116.
Shannon, G. E. & Weaver, W. (1963). The mathematical theory of communication. Univ. of Illinois press, Urbana, 125.