Effects of Treatment Application Rates (FYM and Gypsum) and Pore Volume Leaching Water on Exchangeable Sodium and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Saline Sodic Soils of Babile District, Eastern Lowlands of Ethiopia
Volume 3, Issue 2, April 2015, Pages: 30-37
Received: Jan. 20, 2015;
Accepted: Feb. 6, 2015;
Published: Feb. 28, 2015
Views 3366 Downloads 303
Assefa Adane, Hawassa college of Teacher Education, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Heluf Gebrekidan, School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Kibebew Kibret, School of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Incubation and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of FYM, gypsum and pore volume (PV) of water on ESP and Ksat of saline sodic soils. Factorial combination of three rates of FYM (0, 20 and 30 ton ha-1), four rat of gypsum (0, 50, 75, 100 and 125% GR) and three PV of water (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0) were applied into the soil in complete randomized design with three replications. The soils were incubated using a plastic pot for a week followed by leaching with various PV of water. The data obtained subjected to analysis of variance. Results indicated that sole application of gypsum at different rates and their combination with FYM significantly decreased the ESP of the soil compared to FYM and the control. However, larger exchangeable Na released and then decreased the soil ESP with the use of combined FYM and gypsum treatments than sole application of gypsum for every increment in applied PV of leaching water. Similarly, the Ksat of soils was higher in combined than sole application of FYM and gypsum for all applied fixed PV of leaching water. On the other hand, increasing sole application of FYM and gypsum increased the Ksat of soil and the numerical values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the control but lower than the different combinations. Though, the Ksat of soil increased with increasing rates of applied FYM and gypsum; these values showed decreasing trend as PV of leaching water increased. In general, the interaction effects of different levels of FYM, gypsum and PV of water were significant (P < 0.05) in improving the ESP and Ksat of the saline sodic soils of Bisidimo. In conclusion, among the various treatments considered, combinations of 20 tons FYM ha-1 with gypsum (50, 75 and 100% GR) rates and leaching up to three PV of water are adequate to reclaim saline sodic soil to permissible limit and then theses combinations are recommended for resource poor farmers. The experiment was laid down in a completely randomized design with two replicates.
Effects of Treatment Application Rates (FYM and Gypsum) and Pore Volume Leaching Water on Exchangeable Sodium and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Saline Sodic Soils of Babile District, Eastern Lowlands of Ethiopia, Science Research.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2015, pp. 30-37.
Ahmed, M., Niazi, B. H. and Sandhu, G.R. 2001. Effectiveness of gypsum, HCl and organic matter for the improvement of saline sodic soils. Pakistan. Journal in Agriculture. Res. 9: 373–8.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 1988. Soil map of the World, Revised legend with corrections. World soil resources report 60. FAO, Rome, Italy.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organizatio), 2000. Available http://www.fao.orglag/agl/agll/spush/ topic/htm.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 2001. Lecture notes on the major soils of the world. World soils resources report. No.94. Rome.
Fasika Berhanu , 2006. Characterization and Classification of Salt Affected Soils and Irrigation Water in Alage ATVET College Campus, Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. MSc Thesis, Haramaya University.
Gizaw. Berhanu, 2008. Characterization and Classification of the Soils and Irrigation Water Sources of the Bisidimo areas. Babile District in East Hararghe Zone of Oromia National Regional State. MSc Thesis, Haramaya University.
Grattan, S.R. and Oster, J.D. 2003. Use and reuse of saline sodic water for irrigation of crops. In: Goyal SS, Sharma SK, Rains DW (Eds.), Crop Production in Saline Environments: Global and Integrative Perspectives. Haworth Press, New York, pp. 131–162.
Hanay, A., Fatih, B. Fatih, M.K, and.C,Mustafa, Y 2004. Reclamation of Saline Sodic Soils with Gypsum and MSW Compost. Comprehensive Science Utilization. 12:175-179.
Heluf G/Kidan, 1985. Investigation on Salt Affected Soils and Irrigation Water Quality in Melka Sedi-Amibara Plain, Rift Valley Zone of Ethiopia. MSc Thesis Presented to the School of Graduate Studies of Addis Ababa University.
Heluf Gebrekidan, 1987. Problems and Prospects of Salt Affected Soils in Ethiopia (Summary Literature Survey Report). Alemaya University of Agriculture. Department of plant science.
Heluf Gebrekidan, 1995. Evaluation of the potential use of langbeinite (K2SO4 .2MgSO4 ) as a reclaiming material for sodic and saline sodic soils. A PhD Dissertation, Department of Soil. Water and Environmental Science, The University of Arizona.
Kalute, A. and Dirksen, C. 1986. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity: Laboratory Models. In a Klute (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, part1, 2nd edition, Agron. Monogr.
Kidane Georgis, Abebe Fanta, Heluf Gebrekidan, Fentaw Abegaz, Wondimagegne Chekol, Hibstu Azeze, Asegid Ayalew, Messele Fisseha, and Mohammed Bedel, 2006. Assessment of salt affected soils in Ethiopia and recommendations on management options for their sustainable utilization. A Task Force Report Submitted to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development. EIAR, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Izhar, H., Muhammad B, and Iqbal, F. 200. Effect of gypsum and FYM on soil properties and wheat crop irrigated with brackish water.
Joachim, H.J., Makoi, R. and. Patrick, A Ndakidemi,2007. Reclamation of sodic soils in northern Tanzania, using locally available organic and inorganic resources. African Journal of Biotechnology. 6: 1926-1931.
Murtaza, G., Tahir, M.N. and Ghafoor, A. 1999. Calcium losses from gypsum and farm yard manure treated saline-sodic soil during reclamation. International Journal of agriculture and Biology. 1: 19–22.
Qadir, M., Noble, A. Schubert, S. Thomas, R. and Arslan, A. 2006.Sodicity induced land degradation and its sustainable management: Problems and prospects. Land Degrade. Dev 17: 661–676.
Qadir, M., Oster, J. Schubert, S. Noble, A. and Sahrawat, K. 2007. Remediation of sodic and saline sodic soil. Journal advances in Agronomy. 96: 17-247.
Quarashi, R., Qadir, M,H. and N. Ahmad. 2007. Amelioration of calcareous saline sodic soils through phytoremediation and chemical strategies. Soil use and management. 18: 381-385.
Quirk, J.P. and Schofield, R.K. 2005. The effect of electrolyte concentration on soil permeability. Journal of Soil Science. 6:163-178.
Raue, J., 2008. Recycled Organic Products to Reduce the Negative Impact of Salinity and Sodicity on Acidic Soil Properties and Plant Growth. MSc Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
Raza, H., Taju, P. and Murtaza, Y. 2001. Reclamation response of saline-sodic soil to gypsum application rates receiving irrigation waters of: SAR ratios. Proc. 8th International. Confce. of Soil Science. Nov. different EC 13-16, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Rengasamy, P, and Olsson, 1999. Sodicity and soil structure. Australian Journal of soil research. 29: 35-952.
Rengasamy, P., 2002. Transient salinity and subsoil constraints to dry land farming in Austrlian sodic soils: an overview. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 42: 351-31.
Sharma, D.R, and Minhas, P.S, 2004. Soil properties and yields of upland crops as influenced by long term use of water having variable residual alkalinity, salinity and sodicity. Journal of Indian Society of. Soil Science. 1: 100–104.
Tajada, M., Garcia, C. Gonzalea, J. L. and. Hernadez, M.T 2006. Use of organic amendments as a strategy for saline soil remediation: influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Journal of Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38: 1413-1421.
U.S (United States) Salinity Laboratory Staff, 1954. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils. USDA Agri. Handbook. No. 60. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Wahid, A., Akhtar, S. Ali, I. and Rasul, E. 1998. Amelioration of saline sodic soils with OM and their use for wheat growth. Commun. Soil Science Plant Analysis. 29: 2307-2318.
Wichern, J., Wicnern F. and Jeorgensen. R.G. 2006. Impact of salinity on soil microbial communities and the decomposition of maize in acidic sols. Geoderma 137: 100-108.
Yuan, B. C., Li, Z. Z. Liu, H. Gao M. and Zhang, Y.Y. 2007. Microbial biomass and activity in salt affected soils under and conditions. Applied Soil Ecology. 35:319-328.
Zaka, M.A., Rafa H.U. and Khan, A.A. 2005. Integrated approach for reclamation of salt affected soils / Journal of Agriculture and Social Science. 1: 94-96.