Please enter verification code
Comparative Studies on in Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Aqueous, Ethanol, Ethylacetate and N-Hexane Extracts of Leaves of Datura stramonium and Ocimum gratissimum
Science Research
Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2015, Pages: 7-12
Received: Sep. 11, 2014; Accepted: Sep. 25, 2014; Published: Feb. 2, 2015
Views 2973      Downloads 242
Chintem Williams D. G., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Nzelibe Humphrey Chukwuemeka, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
The in vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of aqueous, ethanol, ethylacetate and n-hexane extracts of leaves of Datura stramonium and Ocimum gratissimum were investigated. Due to the fact that Free radicals are implicated in many diseases including diabetes mellitus, arthritis, cancer, ageing. etc. In the treatment of these diseases, antioxidant therapy has gained utmost importance. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by standard methods and the antioxidant activity of the various extracts were measured on the basis of the free radical scavenging activity of the extract on stable 1, 1-diphenyl 2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH) at varying concentrations of the plant extracts (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg/ml) and absorbance was measured at 517nm using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results indicated that alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and tannins were present in D. stramonium ethanol leaf extract while alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids were present in O. gratissimum n-Hexane leaf extract. The percentage inhibition of the solvent extracts at 100 μg/ml - aqueous (30.77 %), ethanol (74.90 %), ethylacetate (49.94 %) and n-hexane (69.90 %) for D. stramonium while for O. gratissimum - aqueous (45.84 %), ethanol (49.47 %), ethylacetate (63.94 %) and n-hexane (91.14 %). Of all the extracts, n-hexane leave extract of O. gratissimum exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.21 μg/ml compared to ethanol leave extracts of D. stramonium with IC50 0.29 μg/ml. This study revealed that n-hexane leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum had a more potent antioxidant activity compared to the ethanol leaf extract of D. stramonium which had moderate antioxidant activity. Both plants extracts had no significant difference when compared with ascorbic acid standard (0.19 µg/ml) at (P≤.05). The phytochemical profile of the plants might be responsible for their high antioxidant activity, thus justifying wide use of O. gratissimum in diet which could provide a source of high dietary antioxidants and D. stramonium in ethno-botanical applications.
DPPH, Ascorbic Acid, Datura stramonium, Ocimum gratissimum, Antioxidant
To cite this article
Chintem Williams D. G., Nzelibe Humphrey Chukwuemeka, Comparative Studies on in Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Aqueous, Ethanol, Ethylacetate and N-Hexane Extracts of Leaves of Datura stramonium and Ocimum gratissimum, Science Research. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2015, pp. 7-12. doi: 10.11648/
N. Ara, M. Rashid, M.S. Amrad, ‘‘Comparison of Maringa oleifera Leaves Extract with Atenolol on Serum triglyceride, Serum Cholesterol, Blood glucose, heart weight, body weight in Adrenaline Induced Rats,’’ Saudi J. Biol Sci. 2008;15:253-258.
R. Tsao, ‘‘Chemistry and Biochemistry of Dietary Polyphenols.’’ Nutrients. 2010:(2)1231-1246
O. Blokhina, E. Virolainen, K. Fagerstedt, ‘‘Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress’’, a review. Annals of Botany. 2003;91(0):179-194.
L. Pari, M. Karamaæ, A. Kosiñska, A. Rybarczyk, R. Amarowicz, ‘‘Antioxidant activity of the crude extracts of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lann.) and sweet Broomweed (Scoparia dulcis I.) Leaves.’’ Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2007;57:203-208.
E. Middleton, C. Kandaaswami, T. C. Theoharides, The Effects of Plant Flavonoids on Mammalian Cells: Implications for Inflammation, Heart Disease, and Cancer. Pharm Rev. 2000;52:673-751.
S. Swathi, G. Murugananthan, SK. Ghosh, AS. Pradeep, Larvicidal and repellent activities of ethanolic extract of Datura stramonium leaves against Mosquitoes. Int J. Pharm Phytochem Res. 2012;41:25-27.
J. A. Duke, and Ayensu, ES. Medicinal plants of China, Algonac Reference Publications. 1985;2: 544.
S. Ivancheva, M. Nikolova, and R. Tsvetkova, Pharmacological activities and biologically active compounds of Bulgarian medicinal plants. In: Inperato, F, (ed). Phytochemisry: Advances in research. Kerala: Signpost, 2006; 87-103.
A. Boumba, A. Mitselou, and T. Vougiouklakis, Fatal poisoning from ingestion of Datura stramonium seeds. Veterinary Human Toxicololgy, 2005; 46:81–82.
M. Burkill, The useful plants of Tropical Africa. 2nd ed., Vol.1, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. 1985
A. Mann, M. Gbate, A. Nda-Umar, Medicinal and Economic Plants of Nupeland. Jube-Evans Books and Publications, Bida, Nigeria. 2003
M.B. Ngassoum, J. J. Jessia-Ngang, L. N. Tatsadjieu, L Jirovetz, G. Buchbauer and O. Adjoudji, Antimicrobial study of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum leaves and Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides fruits from Cameroon. Fitoterapia; 2003; 74(2) 284 -287.
Sofowora EA. Phytochemical screening of Nigerian medicinal plants. Part II Lloydia, 1993;41(3):234-246
Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods, A guide to Modern Techniques of Plant analysis, second ed. Chapman and Hall, London 1998.
Brand-williams W, Cuvelier ME and Berset C. Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft and Technologie; 1995; 28(1):25-30.
Hossain J., Urgessa K., Regassa F., Jemal A., Abajebel S. and Hussien N., (2011). Antihelmentic effects of the Essential oil extracts of selected Medicinal plants against Haemonchus contortus. Internat. J. Agric. Res., 6: 290-298.
Afolabi CA., Ibukun EO, Afor, E., Obuotor, EM. and Farombi, EO. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of extract from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum. Scientific Research and Essay, 2007; 2(5):163-166.
Olofintoye, LK, Simon-Oke, IA and Omoregie, OB. Larvicidal Properties of Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) and Nicotiana tabaccum (Tobacco) Extracts against the Larvae of (Anopheles and Culex) Mosquitoes. 2011;5(2): 337-344)
Olabinri BM., Fatunwase IO. and Olabinri PF. In vitro discovery of highly chelatable root extract of thorn apple (Datura stramonium). International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 2014;6(2):75-79, DOI: 10.5897/IJMMS2013.0966
Donatus EO, Ephraim CI. Isolation, characterization and antibacterial activity of alkaloid from Datura metel Linn leaves. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2009; 3(5) 277–281.
E. Barile, G. Bonanomi, V. Antignani, B. Zolfaghari, S. S. Ebrahim, F. Scala, Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial assessment of Abutilon mauritianum, bacopa monifera and Datura stramonium. Phytochemistry. 2007; 68:596–603.
G.A. Ayoola, H. A. B. Coker, S. A. Adesegun, A. A. Adepoju-Bello, K. Obaweya, E. C. Ezennia, Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of some selected medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in Southwestern Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2008; 7(3)1019 - 1024.
F. C. Akharaiyi, Antibacterial, phytochemical and antioxidant activities of Datura metel. Inl J Pharmacology Technology Research 2011;3(1)478–483.
D. Sekar, K. Kolanjinathan, P. Saranraj, K. Gajendiran, Screening of Phyllanthus amarus, Acalypha indica and Datura metel for its antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens. Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2012;3(5)1231-1235.
I. Koleva, A. B. Teris, P. H. Jozef, G. Aede, N. E. Lyuba, Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: A Comparative Study on Three Testing Methods. Phytochem. Anal. 2002;13:8–17 DOI: 10.1002/pca.611
K.S. Chukwuka, J.O. Ikheloa, I.O. Okonko, J.O. Moody, T.A. Mankinde. The antimicrobial activities of some medicinal plants on Escherichia colias an agent of diarrhoea in livestock. Advan. Appl. Sci.Res. 2011; 2: 37-48
R. Khaled. Medicinal Plants with antioxidant Potential: A review Hygeia. Journal for drugs and medicines 6 (1) 106-110. 2014. DOI: 10.15254/H.J.D.Med.6.2014.127
S., Sahoo, G., Ghosh, D., Das and S., Nayak. Phytochemical investigation and In vitro antioxidant activity of an indigenous medicinal plant Alpinia nigra BL Burtt. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 3, 871-876. 2013
B. M., Olabinri, I. O. Fatunwase, and P. F. Olabinri. "In vitro discovery of highly chelatable root extract of thorn apple (Datura stramonium)." International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 6.2 (2014): 75-79.
Pellegrini, Nicoletta, Mauro Serafini, Barbara Colombi, Daniele Del Rio, Sara Salvatore, Marta Bianchi, and Furio Brighenti. "Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils onsumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays." The Journal of nutrition 133, no 9 (2003): 2812-2819.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186