Rice (Oryza Sativa) and Chickpea (Cicer aritinum L) Relay Intercropping Systems in an Additive Series Experiment in Rain Fed Lowland Ecosystem of Fogera Vertisols
Volume 2, Issue 6, December 2014, Pages: 179-184
Received: Nov. 24, 2014;
Accepted: Dec. 7, 2014;
Published: Dec. 17, 2014
Views 3363 Downloads 252
Yayeh Bitew, Agronomist, Adet Agricultural Research Centre, Amhara Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 08, Bahir Dare, Ethiopia
Fekremariam Asargew, Agronomist, Adet Agricultural Research Centre, Amhara Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 08, Bahir Dare, Ethiopia
Study on rice as a main crop and chickpea as a companion crop relay intercropping in an additive series experiment in rain fed lowland ecosystem of Fogera vertisols was conducted for two consecutive years to test the rice-chick pea relay intercropping planting method and to determine the optimum proportion for component crops in rice- chick pea relay intercropping on transplanted rice. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with three replications. Five seed rates of chick pea relayed intercropped in between rows of transplanted rice and one sole rice were tested i.e. full recommended seed rate of chick pea relay intercropped in between rows of transplanted rice, two-third of the recommended seed rate of chick pea relay intercropped in between rows of transplanted rice, two-third of the recommended seed rate of chick pea relay intercropped in between alternate rows of transplanted rice, half of the recommended seed rate of chick pea relay intercropped in between rows of transplanted rice, half of the recommended seed rate of chick pea relay intercropped in between alternate rows of transplanted rice and the sole transplanted rice used as comparison. Rice yield and yield component data were statistically subjected to analysis of variance using SAS-JMP-5 software. All growth, yield and yield component of rice did not significantly affected by additive relay intercropping and seed proportion in rice-chickpea relay intercropping systems. However, the study conducted for two consecutive years at all test sits confirmed that chick pea after twenty to thirty days from the planting time was completely dried and unable to gave seed yield from rice-chickpea relay intercropping experiment. Hence, under current crop management practice of rice at Fogera vertisol areas, chickpea cannot replace the grass pea in rice-grass pea relay intercropping system (farmers practice); and relay intercropping of chickpea with rice is not economically important for farmers to increase the yield potential and land use efficiency. It needs intensive Agronomy research on rice-chickpea intercropping systems and breeding on both component crops.
Rice (Oryza Sativa) and Chickpea (Cicer aritinum L) Relay Intercropping Systems in an Additive Series Experiment in Rain Fed Lowland Ecosystem of Fogera Vertisols, Science Research.
Vol. 2, No. 6,
2014, pp. 179-184.
Francis, C.A., 1986. Introduction: distribution and importance of multiple cropping. Pages 1-20 in multiple cropping systems (Francis, C.A., ed.). Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, USA.
Sanchez, P.A., Palm, C.A., Davey, C.B., Szott, L.T., and Russell, C.E. 1985. Trees as crop plants. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Natural Environment Research Council, Proceedings: Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture. 23-25 February, New Delhi, India. Pp. 189-193.
Reddy, M.S. and Willey, R.W., 1981. Growth and resource use studies in an intercrop of peril millet/ground nut. Filed crop Research 4:13-24.
Zhu Youyong, 2000. "Genetic diversity and disease control in rice". International Weekly Journal of Science 406: 718–722.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2003. Final Report of the 32nd Session of the Conference: report of the conference of FAO Thirty-second Session, Rome, 29 November - 9 December 2003
Central statistical agency (CSA), 2013. Agricultural sample survey 2012 / 2113, volume III. Report on area and production, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), 2011.Empowering Farmers' Innovation, Series No. 2: Challenges and Opportunities of Rice in Ethiopian Agricultural Development, Adise Abeba, Ethiopia
Tilahun T., Alemayehu A., Minale L., and Zelalem T. 2008. Effect of seed soaking and incubation on the emergence, growth and yield of rice. In: Ermias A., Akalu T., Alemayehu A.G., Melaku W., Tilahun T., and Wondimu B.(eds). 2008. Procceedings of the 2nd Annual Regional Conference on Completed Crop Research Activities, 18-21 Sep. 2007. Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute. B.D., Ethiopia. Pp. 36-40.
Heluf Gebrekidan and Mulugeta Seyoum, 2006. Effects of Mineral N and P Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Flooded Lowland Rice on Vertisols of Fogera Plain, Ethiopia. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics Volume 107(2): 161–176
Mulugeta Seyoum; Uptake and response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization under rain fed lowland condition of the Fogera Plain, Northern Ethiopia; Master’s thesis; Alemaya University; 2000.
SAS Institute Inc. (2002). JMP-5 Statistical Software, Version 5.Cary, NC, USA.
Preston, S. (2003). Intercropping Principles and Production Practices. NCAT, ATTRA Publication # Pp 135. Accessed in November, 2014 at attra.ncat.org
Bantie, Y.B., Abera, F.A. and Woldegiorgis, T.D., 2014. Competition Indices of Intercropped Lupine (Local) and Small Cereals in Additive Series in West Gojam, North Western Ethiopia. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 1296-1305.
Yayeh Bitew, 2014. Influence of Small Cereal Intercropping and Additive Series of Seed Proportion on the Yield and Yield Component of Lupine (Lupinus Spp.) in North Western Ethiopia. Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 3 (2) 133-141
Muhammad Bismillah Khan and Abdul Khaliq, 2005. Production of winter cereals as relay crops by surface seeding in cotton based cropping system. Journal of Research (Science) 16(2), 79-86
Jones, R.K. and McCown, R.L. (1983). Research on no-till tropical legume farming strategy. In: Proceedings of Eastern Africa -ACIAR Consultation on Agricultural Research. Nairobi, Kenya, Pp 18-23.
Nelson and. Robichaux, 2006. Identifying plant architectural traits associated with yield under intercropping: Implications of genotype-cropping system interactions. Plant Breeding 116 (2) 163–170
Arshad Mahmood, Faqir Hussain Anjum and Amjad ali, 2003. Rice planting geometry facilitating relay cropping at zerotillage. International journal of agriculture & biology 15(4):435–437
Devasirvatham, V D. K. Y. Tan, P. M. Gaur, T. N. Raju and R. M. Trethowan, 213. High temperature tolerance in chickpea and its implications for plant improvement. Crop and Pasture Science 63(5) 419-428
Berger JD, Turner NC (2007) The ecology of chickpea. In ‘Chickpea breeding and management’. (Eds. SS Yadav, R.J Redden, W Chen, B Sharma) pp. 47-71 (CAB International Publishing: UK).
Basu PS, Ali M, Chaturvedi SK, 2009. Terminal heat stress adversely affects chickpea productivity in Northern India- Strategies to improve thermo tolerance in the crop under climate change. ISPRS Archives XXXVIII-8/W3 Workshop
Gaur PM, Pande S, Sharma HC, Gowda CLL, Sharma KK, Crouch JH, Vadez V (2007) Genetic enhancement of stress tolerance in chickpea: Present status and future prospects. In ‘Crop production stress environments: Genetic and management options’. (Eds. DP Singh, VS Tomar, RK Behl, SD Upadhyaya, MS Bhale, D Khare) pp. 85-94. (AGROBIOS International Publishing: Jodhpur, India).
Ellis RH, Covell S, Roberts EH, Summerfield RJ (1986) The influence of temperature on seed germination rate in grain legumes. Journal of Experimental Botany 183, 1503- 1515.
Singh NH, Dhaliwal GS., 1972). Effect of soil temperature on seedling emergence in different crops. Plant and soil 37, 441-444.
Sanjeev Kumar, Prince Thakur, Neeru Kaushal Jahid A. Malik, P. Gaur & Harsh Nayyar, 2013. Effect of varying high temperatures during reproductive growth on reproductive function, oxidative stress and seed yield in chickpea genotypes differing in heat sensitivity. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 59(6):823-843