Assessment of Sexual Violence and Associated Factors among High School Students in Harari Regional State, Harar Town, Eastern Ethiopia
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 91-97
Received: Aug. 19, 2014;
Accepted: Sep. 2, 2014;
Published: Sep. 30, 2014
Views 3701 Downloads 577
Jote Markos Cafo, Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences School of Nursing and Midwifery, Harar, Ethiopia
Agumassie Semahegn Demisie, Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences School of Nursing and Midwifery, Harar, Ethiopia
Balcha Berhanu Abera, Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences School of Nursing , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background: Sexual violence is any sexual act that is perpetrated against someone's willingness including a completed and or attempt nonconsensual, abusive sex act. This study aimed to determine sexual violence and associated factors among high school students in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among youth in high school students. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from randomly selected 432 students and four focus group discussions were held with students by using interview guide semi-structured questionnaire to collect qualitative data. Data were entered to SPSS version 16.0 was used to analyze. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were computed to quantify sexual violence and associated factors. Statistical association was measured 95% confidence interval and adjusted odd ratio. Results: Sexual violence among in school adolescents were 25%. Students used addictive drugs like alcohol (18%), chat and shish (7.2%) as very important contributing factors for sexual violence’s. Use of physical force (15%), false promise (43%) and use of power (7.2%) reported contributing factors. Females dressing style, their act, peer pressure, revenge and males emotionality identified as contributing factors for sexual violence. Sexual violence had different consequences like abortion (32.2%), vaginal discharge (28.6%), genital trauma (25%), and unwanted pregnancy (14.2%). Conclusion: Sexual violence was common problem of in-school adolescents in Harar town. Female students’ behavior also contributed for their sexual violence. Sexual and reproductive health issue information should be provided to create awareness about reproductive rights and life skill.
Jote Markos Cafo,
Agumassie Semahegn Demisie,
Balcha Berhanu Abera,
Assessment of Sexual Violence and Associated Factors among High School Students in Harari Regional State, Harar Town, Eastern Ethiopia, Science Research.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2014, pp. 91-97.
Heise L, Ellsberg, M, Goheemoeller, M. Ending violence against women, Population Report Series, 1999, Vol. 1 pp.11.
Basile K, Saltzman L. Sexual violence surveillance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2002.
WHO. Understanding Sexual Violence Fact Sheet. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2008. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheetHtml (accessed 5 Dec. 2009).
World Health Organization. Violence against Women: A Priority Health Issue, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1997.
Kapur, P. Girl child abuse: violation of her human rights, Social Change, 1995, 25(2): 3-18.
United Nations Development Fund for Women. A world free of violence against women, United Nations Inter-Agency Global Video Conference, United Nations Development Fund for Women, New York, 1998.
McCauley, A.P, Salter, C. Meeting the needs of young adults, Population Report, 1995, 5(41):1-11.
Silverman, J. Raj, A, Mucci A, Hathaway E. Dating violence against adolescent girls and associated substance use, unhealthy weight control, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy, and suicidal. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001; 286: 572-579.
Victims of crime in the developing world. Rome, United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, 1998.
Mikiko N , Yasushi N, Sueko K, Kayoko O. Experience of sexual violence among sexually experienced Japanese teenage girls and influencing factors. Reproductive Medicine and Biology , 2008; 7(4). 1-9
Abbey A, Ross L, McDuffie D, McAuslan P. Alcohol and dating risk factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychol Women Q. 1996; 6 (20):147-169.
Vicary J, Klingaman L, Harkness W. Risk factors associated with date rape and sexual assault of adolescent girls. J Adolesc. 1995; 18:289-306.
Ware S, Dziuba-Leatherman J, Stapleton J, Yodanis L. Acquaintance and Date Rape: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press; 1994.
Abbey A. Acquaintance rape and alcohol consumption on college campuses: how are they linked? J Am Coll Health. 1991; 39:165-169.
Saba W. Masho, Rebecca K. Sexual assault in Virginia: A population-based study. Women's Health Issues. 2005; 15(4): 157-166.
Holmes M, Resnick H, Kilpatrick D, Best C. Rape-related pregnancy: estimates and descriptive characteristics from a national sample of women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 1996; 175:320–324.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth risk behaviour surveillance United States, 2006; 55(5):1–112. www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/SS/SS5505.pdf (accessed Nov.21/2009)
Eva W, Ewa M. Perceptions of sexual harassment in Swedish high schools: experiences and school-environment problems. European Journal of Public Health. 15(1).
Douglas, K. A. et al. "Results From the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey." Journal of American College Health 46 (1997): 55-66
Jewkes R, Sen P, Garcia-Moreno C, Krug E, Dahlberg L, Mercy J. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2002, pp. 213–239.
Felitti V, Anda R, Nordenberg D, Williamson D, Spitz A, Edwards V. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: the Adverse Childhood Experiences study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1998; 14:245–258.
Clements P, Speck P, Crane P, Faulkner M. Issues and dynamics of sexually assaulted adolescents and their families. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 2004; 13 (4):267–274.
Mujgan A. Sexual abuse among female high school students in Istanbul, Turkey. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2006; 30 (3): 247-255.
Centeral statistics agency [Zambia]. Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. 2001. http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/FR211/FR211%5Brevised-05-12-2009%5D.pdf (Accessed on 21 Dec/2009):
Central statistics agency [Kenya]. Kenya Demographic and Health Survey.2003. www.knbs.go.ke/../KenyaDemographicandHealthSurvey2003_Preliminary_Report.pdf
World Health Organization (WHO), Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women: summary report of initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses, Geneva: WHO, 2005.
Appiah C and Cusack K, Violence against Women and Children in Ghana: Report of a National Study on Violence 1999, Gender Studies and Human Rights Documentation Centre: Accra, Ghana.
Worku A. Sexual violence among female high school students in Debark, North West Ethiopia. East Afr Med J. 2002; 79(2):96-97.
Mekkonnen G, Asresash D. Sexual violence against schoolgirls in Jimma Zone. Ethiop. J. Educ. & Sc. 2007; 2 (2).