Please enter verification code
Delays in Services and Customer Service Evaluation: A Study of Family Dining Restaurants of Pakistan
Journal of Investment and Management
Volume 7, Issue 4, August 2018, Pages: 108-116
Received: Jun. 26, 2018; Accepted: Jul. 27, 2018; Published: Aug. 17, 2018
Views 1136      Downloads 158
Maqsood Ahmad, Department of Management Sciences, Iqra University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan
Hina Naseer, Department of Management Sciences, Iqra University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Wait management is very important subject in service sectors because people are moving towards services due to globalization and now it has become common phenomena. Dining at restaurants has become a trend in today’s world due to increasing demand of family’s as well as time constraints. In developed countries, there is much focus on service sectors and it is producing half revenues ($1.258 trillion) of countries like USA, UK, and Japan. However, in developing countries, a service sector has not yet generated much revenue because it seems difficult for developing countries to handle it due to different demands and niche of customers. In current study, 400 questionnaires were distributed to respondents and 300 were received back. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 and results revealed that if good environment is provided at waiting area of restaurant lobbies, then waiting customer behavior can be managed and consequently customer satisfaction. Our results also revealed that physical environment has a positive relationship with customer satisfaction and when this relationship is checked through mediating variable (customer behavior during wait), it also shows positive relationship. On the contrary, social environment has a negative relationship with customer satisfaction and when this relationship is checked through mediating variable (customer behavior during wait), it also shows negative relationship.
Physical Environment, Social Environment, Waits Management, Customer Behavior, Customer Satisfaction
To cite this article
Maqsood Ahmad, Hina Naseer, Delays in Services and Customer Service Evaluation: A Study of Family Dining Restaurants of Pakistan, Journal of Investment and Management. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2018, pp. 108-116. doi: 10.11648/j.jim.20180704.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Antonides, G., Verhoef, P. C., & van Aalst, M. (2002). “Consumer perception and evaluation of waiting time: a field experiment”. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12 (3), 193-202.
Aubert-Gamet, V. (1997). “Twisting servicescapes: diversion of the physical environment in a re-appropriation process”. International Journal in Service Industry Management, 8 (1), 26-41.
Baker, J. (1986). “The role of the environment in marketing services: the consumer perspective” in Cecil, J.A et al. (Eds), The Services Challenge: Integrating for Competitive Advantage. Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association.
Baker, J., Grewal, D., & Parasuraman, A. (1994). "The influence of store environment on quality inferences and store image”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22 (4), 328-39.
Baker, J., Parasuraman, A., Grewal, D., & Vos. (2002). “The influence of multiple store environment cues on perceived merchandise value and patronage intentions”. Journal of Marketing, 66 (2), 120-41.
Bitner, M. J. (1992). "Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on Customers and Employees". Journal of Marketing, 56, 57-71.
Brady, M. k., & Cronin, J. J. (2001). “Some new thoughts on conceptualizing perceived service quality: a hierarchical approach". Journal of Marketing, 65 (3), 34-49.
Chase, R. B., & Dasu, S. (2001). "Want to perfect your company's service? Use behavioral science". Harvard Business Review, 76 (6), pp. 78-84.
Chiou, J. S., Droge, C., & Hanvanich, S. (2002). “Does customer knowledge affect how loyalty is formed?”. Journal of Service Research, 5 (2), 113-24.
Dale, K., & Burrell, G. (2008). 4The Spaces of Organization & The Organization of Space – Power, Identity & Materiality at Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Davis, M. M., & Maggard, M. J. (1990). "How disconfirmation, perception, and actual waiting time in a two-stage service process". Journal of Operation Management, 9 (3), 324-34.
Geist, W. (1984, June 6). They are Hiring Others Stand in Line.
Grewal, D., Baker, J., Levy, M., & Voss, G. B. (2003). "The effects of waits expectations and store atmosphere evaluatios on patronage intentionsin service-intensive retail stores". Journal of Retailing, 79 (4), 259-68.
Harris, L. C., & Ezeh, C. (2008). "Servicescape and loyalty intentions: an empirical investigation". European Journal of Marketing, 42 (3/4), 390-422.
Heung, V. S., Tsang, N., & Cheng, M. (2009). Queuing behavior in theme parks: a comparison between Chinese and Western tourists”. Journal of China Tourism Research, 5 (1), 1-51.
Hornik, J. (1984). Subjective vs. Objective time measures:a note on the perception of time in consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 11 (1), 615-618.
Huang, W. H. (2008). “The impact of other-customer failure on service satisfaction”. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 19 (4), 521-36.
Katz, Karen, Blaire, Larson, & Richard, L. (1991). Perscription for the Waiting in Lines Blues: Entertain, Enlighten, and Engage. Sloan Management Review (Winter), 44-53.
Kim, N., & Lee, M. (2012). "Other customers in a service encounter:examining the effect in a restaurant setting". Journal of Services Marketing, 26 (1), 27-40.
Koseluk, C. (2004). Are we there yet? (Vol. 116). Amusement Business.
Kotler, P. (1973). “Atmospherics as a marketing tool”. Journal of Retailing, 49 (4), 48-64.
Lin, J.-S. C., & Liang, H.-L. (2011). "The influence of Service Environments on Custoemr emotions and customers outcomes". Management Service Quality, 21 (Nov), 350-372.
Maister, D. (1985). "The Psychology of Wating Lines", in th eService Encounter (John Czepeil, Michael Solomon, and Carol Suprenant, ed ed.). Lexington: Lexington Books.
Martin, C. L. (1996). “Consumer-to-consumer relationships: satisfaction with other consumers’ public behavior”. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 30 (1), 146-69.
Mattila, A. S., & Enz, C. A. (2002). “The role of emotions in service encounters”. Journal of Service Research, 4 (4), 268-77.
McGrath, M. A., & Otnes, C. (1995). "Unacquainted Influencers: When stranger interact in the Retail Setting". Journal of Business Research, 32, 261-272.
McHugo, G. J., Sullivan, D. G., Lanzetta, J. T., Masters, R. D., & Englis, B. G. (1985). “Emotional reactions to the expressive displays of a political leader”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3 (3), 1513-29.
Mehrabian, A., & Russell. (1974). An approach to Environmental Psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Mobach, M. P. (2013). "The impact of physical changes on customer behavior". Management Research Review, 36 (3), 278-295.
Oakes, S., & North, A. C. (2008). "Reviewing congruity effects in the service environment musicscape". International Journal of Service Industry Management, 19 (1), 63-82.
Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. NY: McGraw-Hill, New York.
Parker, C., & Ward, P. (2000). "An analysis of role adoptions and scripts during customer-to-customers encounters". European Journal of Marketing, 34 (3/4), 341-358.
Pugh, S. D. (2001). “Service with a smile: emotional contagion in the service encounter”. Academy of of Management Journal, 44 (5), 1018-27.
Reil, A. C., Semeijn, J., Ribbink, D., & Bombert-Peters, Y. (2012). "Waiting for service at the checkout:Negative emotional responses, store image, and overall satisfaction". Journal of Service Management, 23 (2), 144-169.
Richins, M. L. (1997). “Measuring emotions in the consumption experience”. Journal of Consumer Research, 24 (2), 127-46.
Rosenbaum, M. S., & Massiah, C. (2011). "An expanded servicescape perspective". Journal of Service Management, 22 (4), 471-490.
Seawright, K. K., & Sampson, S. E. (2007). A video method for empirically studying wait perception bias. Journal of Operation Management, 25 (5), 1055-66.
Tsai, W. C., & Huang, Y. M. (2002). “Mechanisms linking employee affective delivery and customer behavioral intentions”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (5), 1001-8.
Turley, L. W., & Milliman, E. R. (2000). "Atmospheric effects on Shopping Behavior:A reviw of Experimantal Evidence". Journal of Business Research, 49, 193-211.
Whiting, A., & Donthu, N. (2009). "Closing the gap between perceived and actual waiting times in a call center:results from a field study". Journal of Services Marketing, 23 (5), 279-288.
Yoo, C., Park, J., & MacInnis, D. J. (1998). “Effects of store characteristics and in-store emotional experiences on store attitude”. Journal of Business Research, 42 (3), 253-63.
Zakay, D., & Hornik, J. (1991). "How much time did you wait in line? A time perception perspective"(Chebat,J.C.andVenkatesan,V. ed.).UQAM,MontreÂal,Canada: Proceedings of the VIIth John-Labatt Marketing Reseach Seminar, Time and Consumer Behavior.
Zeithmal, V. A., Bitner, M. J., & Gremler, D. D. (2009). "Service marketing:Integrating Customer Focus across the Firm". Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186