An Experimental Study on Relationship Between Subliminal Emotion and Implicit Sequence Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements
International Journal of Psychological and Brain Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 1, February 2018, Pages: 1-6
Received: Dec. 7, 2017;
Accepted: Dec. 18, 2017;
Published: Jan. 12, 2018
Views 1016 Downloads 125
Zhanglong Lu, School of Education, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
Jieqiong Lin, School of Education, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
Xiaoyu Li, Zhengzhou Central Hospital, Zhengzhou, China
The relationship between emotion and implicit sequence learning is one of the basic question in the fields of implicit learning. The current study adopted serial reaction time (SRT) task paradigm and eye-movement technology to explore the effect of emotion on implicit learning. A one-factor between-subjects experimental design was used, with subliminal emotion (positive vs. negative) as between-subjects variable. Dependent measure was saccadic reaction time. Results were showed as follows: (1) saccadic reaction time was less in positive emotion group than negative emotion group; (2) saccadic reaction time was decreasing with increasing blocks; (3) there was significant interaction between group and block, and simple effect analysis indicated that the saccadic reaction time in positive emotion group was decreasing with increasing blocks, while there was no significant block effect in negative emotion group; (4) the amount of implicit sequence leaning was significantly higher in positive emotion group than negative emotion group. The findings suggest that positive emotion promote implicit sequence learning.
An Experimental Study on Relationship Between Subliminal Emotion and Implicit Sequence Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements, International Journal of Psychological and Brain Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 1,
2018, pp. 1-6.
Borbely-Ipkovich, E., Janacsek, K., Nemeth, D., & Gond, X. The effect of negative mood and major depressive episode on working memory and implicit learning. Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica, 2014, 16, 29-42.
Naismith, S. L., Hickie, I. B., Ward, P. B., Scott, E., & Little, C. Impaired implicit sequence learning in depression: a probe for frontostriatal dysfunction? Psychological Medicine, 2006, 36, 313-23.
Wang, J. The implicit sequence learning about different types of emotional facial pictures. (Master dissertation, Zhejiang University). 2013.
Yang, G. The research about implicit sequence learning of emotional and semantic stimulus. (Master dissertation, Shenyang Normal University). 2014.
Shang, J., Fu, Q., Dienes, Z., Shao, C., & Fu, X. Negative affect reduces performance in implicit sequence learning. Plos One, 2013, 8 (1):e54693.
Pretz, J. E., Totz, K. S., & Kaufman, S. B. The effects of mood, cognitive style, and cognitive ability on implicit learning. Learning & Individual Differences, 2010, 20, 215-219.
Huang, H. X. Implicit learning: the impacts of attention, goal, emotion and age. (Doctoral dissertation, Suzhou University). 2011.
Dienes Z, Baddeley RJ, & Jansari A. Rapidly measuring the speed of unconscious learning: amnesics learn quickly and happy people slowly. Plos One, 2012, 7, e33400.
Montagne, B., Kessels, R. P., Frigerio, E., de Haan, E. H., & Perrett, D. I. Sex differences in the perception of affective facial expressions: do men really lack emotional sensitivity? Cognitive Processing, 2005, 6, 136-141.
Mackie, D. M., & Worth, L. T. Processing deficits and the mediation of positive affect in persuasion. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1989, 57, 27-40.
Helmuth, L. L., Mayr, U., & Daum, I. Sequence learning in parkinson’s disease: a comparison of spatial-attention and number-response sequences. Neuropsychologia, 2000, 38, 1443-1451.
Hsee, C. K., Tu, Y., Lu, Z. Y., & Ruan, B. Approach aversion: negative hedonic reactions toward approaching stimuli. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 2014, 106, 699-712.
Williams, L. E., & Bargh, J. A. Keeping one's distance: the influence of spatial distance cues onaffect and evaluation. Psychological Science, 2008, 19, 302-8.
Lv, Y., Hu, W., Wu, G. L., & Shen, D. L. An Experimental Study on Implicit and Explicit Learning Representations in a Serial Reaction Time Task. Psychological Science, 2008, 31, 770-773.
Cheng, J. Q. & Gao, X. P. The emotion priming under different levels of consciousness. Psychological Science, 2004, 27, 1506-1508.
Liao, S. L. & Tao, D. Q. New advances in studies about unconscious emotional priming. Psychological Science, 2004, 27, 701-704.
Kinder, A., Rolfs, M., Kliegl, R. Sequence learning at optimal stimulus-response mapping: Evidence from a serial reaction time task. The quarterly journal of experimental psychology, 2008, 61, 203-209.
Destrebecqz, A., & Cleeremans, A. Can sequence learning be implicit? New evidence with the Process Dissociation Procedure. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2001, 8, 343-350.
Jacoby, L. L. A process dissociation framework: separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory & Language, 1991, 30, 513-541.
Lv, Y., Zhang, W. N., & Shen, D. L. The priming effect of subliminal emotion face in different hedonic value: the evidence from ERP. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2010, 42, 929-938.
Nissen, M. J., & Bullemer, P. Attentional requirements of learning: evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology, 1987, 19, 1-32.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Cognition and Emotion, 2005, 19, 313-332.
Lu, Z. L., Lv, Y., & Bai, X. J. Attention load has no effect on implicit sequence learning: an eye movement study. Studies of psychology and behavior, 2011, 9(3), 214-218.
Fu, Q. F. & Fu, X. L. Relationship between Implicit Sequence Learning and Attention. Advances in psychological science, 2006, 14(6), 817-821.
Bodenhausen, G. V., Kramer, G. P., & Suesser, K. Happiness and stereotypic thinking in social judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1994, 66, 621−632.
Pham, M. T. Emotion and rationality: A critical review and interpretation of empirical evidence. Review of General Psychology, 2007, 11, 155−178.
Aarts, H., Custers, R., & Veltkamp, M. Goal priming and the affective-motivational route to nonconscious goal pursuit. Social Cognition, 2008, 26, 555-577.