American Journal of Energy Engineering
Volume 3, Issue 2-1, March 2015, Pages: 1-5
Received: Jan. 20, 2015;
Accepted: Jan. 20, 2015;
Published: Feb. 14, 2015
Views 3773 Downloads 285
S. R. Mostafa, Chemical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Eng., Cairo Univ., Giza. Egypt
M. A. Sorour, Food Eng. and Packaging Dept., Food Tech. Research Institute, Agric. Research center, Giza, Egypt
S. M. Bo Samri, Public Authority of Education Applied & Training Healthy Science, Food Processing Nutrition, Kuwait, Kuwait
Mixing of orange concentrates to be homogenized was investigated using flat – bladed impeller. The rheological properties of orange juice concentrate were studied over the range 10-70°C, solid concentration 66 wt% and speed of spindle 50-250 rpm. Shear stress-shear rate data indicate that the concentrate behaves as non-Newtonian pesudoplastic fluid. Geometry was studied by varying the impeller to a column diameter. An impeller mixer was connected to an ammeter in order to predict the power of the mixer. The relation between a power number, blend number, pumping number and Reynolds's number were calculated at different D/T. Scale-up of the mixing process from the laboratory to the production plant scale was carried out utilizing the aforementioned correlations.
S. R. Mostafa,
M. A. Sorour,
S. M. Bo Samri,
Scale-Up of Flat Bladed Mixer in Orange Juice Concentrate Process, American Journal of Energy Engineering. Special Issue: Energy Conservation in Food Industry.
Vol. 3, No. 2-1,
2015, pp. 1-5.
K. Rajeev, Ch. Thakur, Vial, G. Djelveh, M. Labbafi, Mixing of complex fluids with flat-bladed impellers: effect of impeller geometry and highly shear-thinning behavior" Chemical Engineering and Processing, 43, pp. 1211–1222, 2004.
Z. Maache-Rezzoug, J. M. Bouvier, K. Allaf, and C. Patras, Study of mixing in connection with the rheological properties of biscuit dough and dimensional characteristics of biscuits, J. Food Eng., 35, pp. 43–56, 1998.
C. A. Kim, J. T. Kim, K. Lee, H. J. Choi, and M. S. Jhon, Mechanical degradation of dilute polymer solutions under turbulent flow, Polymer, 41, pp. 7611–7615, 2000.
W. S. Kim, I. Hirasawa, and W. S. Kim, Effects of experimental conditions on the mechanism of particle aggregation in protein precipitation by polyelectrolytes with a high molecular weight, Chem. Eng. Sci, vol. 56, pp. 6525–6534, 2001.
R. P. Chhabra, J.F. Richardson, Non-Newtonian Flow and Applied Rheology, Engineering Application, second ed. Elsevier, Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam, 2008.
A.W. Etchells, W.N. Ford, D.G.R. Short, Mixing of Bingham plastics on an industrial scale, Inst. Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp. Ser., 108, pp. 1–10, 1987.
S.R.Mostafa, and M.A. Sorour, Effect of impeller geometry on mixing of carrot concentrate. TESCE, 32, pp. 1-13, 2006.
M.A. Sorour, Prediction of power number in mixing of apricot jam puree, Journal of Engineering and Applied Science, 53, pp. 133-144, 2006.
S., Masiuk, T. J. Kawecka, Mixing energy measurements in liquid vessel with pendulum agitators, Chemical Engineering and Processing, 43, 91-99, 2004.
C.B. Elias, J. B. Joshi, Role of hydrodynamic shear on activity and structure of proteins", In: Scheper, T. (Ed.), Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, Springer, 59, pp. 47–71, 1998.
B. McNeil, L.M. Harvey, Viscous fermentation products. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 13, pp. 275–304, 1993.
S. Saito, K. Arai, K. Takahashi, M. Kuriyama, Mixing and agitation of viscous fluids., In: Cheremisinoff, N.P. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Fluid Mixing, vol. 2. Gulf Publishing, pp. 901–948, 1986.
D.B. Todd, Mixing of highly viscous fluids, polymers, and pastes, In: Paul, E.L., Atiemo-Obeng, V.A., Kresta, S.M. (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial Mixing: Science and Practice. Wiley, pp. 987–1025, 2004.
C. J. Geankoplis, 1983, Transport processes and unit operations, Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 2nd Ed., 1983
R. J. Wilkens, C. Henry, L.E. Gates, Chemical Engineering Progress, pp. 44-52, 2003.
Z. Xueming, H. Zondong, A. W. Nienowd, C.A. Kent, Rheological characteristics power consumption, mass and heat transfer during xanathan gum fermentation, Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2, pp. 198- 210, 1994.
McCabe, W.L., and Smith, J.C., 2001, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 6th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.