Challenges of Integrated Water Resources Management in the Western Cape Province, South Africa
Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science
Volume 8, Issue 2, April 2019, Pages: 9-20
Received: Sep. 3, 2018;
Accepted: Sep. 18, 2018;
Published: Jun. 5, 2019
Views 519 Downloads 149
Ntokozo Malaza, Department of Environmental and Occupational Studies, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa
Azwihangwisi Irene Mabuda, Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa
The increased demand for water and land in South Africa, in particular the Western Cape Province as a consequence of population growth, climate change and economic development has reportedly been accelerated from year to year. The province has been adhering to the Intergrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) which was developed in the Water Indaba of 2009 in order to respond to the joint National and Provincial action towards managing the water resources in the Western Cape Province. At the same time, there is growing empirical evidence that challenges the scientiﬁc consensus and the practical implications of implementing IWRM provincially and nationally, although the nature of the implementation challenges may differ in different contexts. Against this background, this paper investigates the nature of the practical challenges to implementing water resource management in the Western Cape region. The study reviewed existing literature on the various issues of IWRM in South Africa; the various basins in the country; the existing measures that the authorities have in place to deal with water resources management issues; the challenges that hinder the progress of their achievements and some suggestions that if considered can improve the current water resources management situations in South Africa. The availability of water and a broader range of water-related issues are identified. The recommended actions for improving the future IWRM are suggested. Challenges to improve the capacity buildings of IWRM related to enabling environment, institutional frameworks and management instruments are verified to contribute to the future directions for efficient problem-solving ability.
Azwihangwisi Irene Mabuda,
Challenges of Integrated Water Resources Management in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science.
Vol. 8, No. 2,
2019, pp. 9-20.
Agyenim, J. B. and Gupta, J. 2012. “IWRM and developing countries: Implementation challenges in Ghana.” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 47-48: 46–57.
Cape Argus. “Western Cape Weather” Cape Argus, 2017.
Cape Argus. “Western Cape Weather” Cape Argus, 2018.
Chamier, J., Schachtschneider, K., Le Maitre, D. C., Ashton, P. J. and Van Wilgen, B. W., “Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular emphasis on South Africa.” Water SA 38 (2): 345-356.
Colvin, C. and Saayman. I. 2007. “Challenges to groundwater governance: A case study of groundwater governance in Cape Town, South Africa.” Water Policy 9: 127-148.
Conca, K. 2006. “Governing water, contentions transnational politics and global institution building.” International Environmental Agreements, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Governing Board.
Crane, W. and Swilling, M. 2008. “Environment, Sustainable Resource Use and the Cape Town Functional Region - An Overview.” Urban Forum, 19, (3): 263-287.
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. 1998. Guide to the National Water Act, Accessed 09 November 2017, http://www.dwaf.gov.za/Documents/Publications/NWAguide.pdf
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. 2004. National Water Resource Strategy: Our Blue print for survival." 1st Edition ed, Accessed 06 October 2017 http://www.wrc.org.za/Knowledge%20Hub%20Documents/Other/NWRA%20Sept04.pdf
Department of Water Affairs. 2012. "Proposed National Water Resources Strategy 2 (NWRS 2): Summary." Accessed 11 November 2017, https://cer.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Draft-NWRS2.pdf
Department of Water Affairs. 2013. “Annual national state of water report for the hydrological year 2012/2013.” Accessed 10 November 2017, http://www.dwa.gov.za/Groundwater/documents/Annual%20National%20State%20Water%20Report%20for%20Hydrological%20Year%202012-13_Final.pdf.
Enright, W. D. 2000. “The effect of terrestrial invasive alien plants on water scarcity in South Africa.” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere, 25 (3): 237-242.
Figueres, C. M., Tortajada, C. and Rockstrom, J, 2003. “Rethinking water management: innovative approaches to contemporary issues.” Earths can Publications Ltd, London.
Hooper, B. 2005. “Integrated river basin governance. learning from international experience.” International Water Association Publishing, London.
MacKellar., N., New, M. and Jack, C. 2014. “Observed and modelled trends in rainfall and temperature for South Africa: 1960-2010.” South African Journal of Science 110 (7-8): 1-13.
Mukheibir, P. and Ziervogel, G. 2007. “Developing a Municipal Adaptation Plan (MAP) for climate change: the city of Cape Town.” Environment and Urbanization 19 (1): 143-158.
Mukheibir, P. 2010. “Water access, water scarcity, and climate change.” Environmental management 45 (5): 1027-1039.
News 24. 2018. “Panic and blame as Cape Town braces for water shut-off” Available athttps://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/panic-and-blame-as-cape-town-braces-for-water-shut-off-20180128.
Pahl-Wostl, C. 2007. “Transition towards adaptive management of water facing climate and global change.” Water Resources Management 21, 49-62.
Pollard, S. and du Toit, D. 2008. “Integrated Water Resources Management in a Complex System.” Water SA 6, (34): 671-680.
Tewari, D. D. 2009. “A detailed analysis of evolution of water rights in South Africa: An account of three and a half centuries from 1652 AD to present.” Water SA 35 (5): 693-710.
Thomas, C. D., Cameron, A., Green, R. E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L. J., Collingham, Y. C., Erasmus, B. F., De Siqueira, M. F., Grainger, A., Hannah, L. and Hughes, L. 2004. “Extinction risk from climate change.” Nature, 427 (6970): 145-148.
United Nations General Assembley, 2015, United Nations Summit on Sustainable Development 2015, 25-27 September 2015, United Nations Headquarters, New York.
Uys, M. 2008. “Water law of South Africa 1912-1998, Water Research Commission.” Accessed 03 January 2018, http://www.wrc.org.za/Knowledge%20Hub%20Documents/Research%20Reports/KV203-WATER%20LAW.pdf.
Western Cape Government. 2011. “Integrated Water Resources Management Action Plan.” Accessed 15 October 2017 https://www.westerncape.gov.za/other/2011/8/final_draft_exec_summary_report_2011.pdf
Western Cape Government. 2012 (a). “Municipal governance reports for the period ended June 2012, Accessed 10 October 2017, https://www.westerncape.gov.za/text/2012/11/city-of-cape-town-rmt.pdf
Western Cape Government. 2012 (b). “Western Cape Sustainable Water Management Plan: Part 1: "The Water Plan.” Accessed January 03 2018, https://www.greencape.co.za/assets/Water-Sector-Desk-Content/WC-DEAP-DWS-Western-Cape-sustainable-water-management-plan-2012.pdf.
Wilson, J. 2011. “Water and climate change: an exploration for the concerned and curious.” Environmental Monitoring Group, Cape Town, South Africa.
Ziervogel, G., Shale, M. and Du, M. 2010. “Climate change adaptation in a developing country context: The case of urban water supply in Cape Town.” Climate and Development 2 (2): 94-110.