Biological Treatment of Textile Wastewater and Its Re-Use in Irrigation: Encouraging Water Efficiency and Sustainable Development
Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2013, Pages: 133-140
Published: Oct. 30, 2013
Views 3437 Downloads 382
S. Senthil Kumar, PG and Research Department of Biotechnology, National College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli-620001, Tamil Nadu, India
Mohamed Jaabir, PG and Research Department of Biotechnology, National College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli-620001, Tamil Nadu, India
The present study focused on the isolation of potential bacteria from contaminated soil of textile industries and subsequent employment of those organisms in treatment of textile waste-water. Wastewater was treated by novel isolates and the biologically treated wastewater was used for the irrigation (phytotoxicity evaluation) of two important edible crop plants (Brassica nigra and Cyamopsis tetragonolobus). For this, plants were grouped as I, II, III and IV that received the tap water, raw effluent, chemically treated and biologically treated wastewater respectively. 46 bacterial isolates were obtained and optimization of parameters revealed that one strain, namely UBL-27 (Comamonas sp. UBL 27) decolorized the wastewater to a max. of 80% in static (anoxic) condition at pH 8 in 24 hours at 32oC. There was a remarkable performance in the germination percentage under biologically-treated wastewater to about 83.6% when compared to that of Control Group producing 92.9%. In contrast to this, the germination % was significantly too low (p≤0.05) in the other cases with the raw wastewater and chemically treated wastewater. The wastewater had marked effect on the growth of the Brassica nigra, the height of the plant was higher in the biologically treated effluent (11.2 ± 0.4 cm) and control group (12.1±0.2) than Group II (8.9±.17 cm) and Group III (9±0.2 cm). Weight of the plant was 1.95±0.35 g and 1.68±0.47 g in Group I and Group IV. It was significantly lower in case of Group II and Group III. In Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, heights of the plant among the four groups at the end of 80 days were 102.3±3.4, 52±7.6, 45.3±4.9 and 92.8±5 cm respectively. Similarly, no. of leaves/plant among the four groups was 49.2±3.2, 26.8±4.5, 32±2.4 and 47±4.5. Total yield of the plant under the experimental area for Group I was 3.15±0.09 kg while that of the Group IV was 2.92±0.09 kg. The yield was significantly lower in the Group II and III such as 1.67±0.17 kg and 2.06±0.22 kg respectively. To consolidate, the raw effluent has decreased the yield by more than 45% (p≤0.05) while that of the chemically treated group by more than 30%. Though, biologically treated wastewater may not be absolutely fit for drinking purposes or for recycling in dyeing processes, it is proved from this, that the eco-friendly alternative can be used for the irrigation purposes beside abatement of water and soil pollution.
S. Senthil Kumar,
Biological Treatment of Textile Wastewater and Its Re-Use in Irrigation: Encouraging Water Efficiency and Sustainable Development, Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2013, pp. 133-140.
Ahluwalia S S, Goyal D (2007) Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresource Technology 98: 2243–2257.
Ali H (2010) Biodegradation of Synthetic Dyes - A Review. Water Air Soil Pollution 213: 251-273.
Amzallag G N (1999). Regulation of Growth: the Meristem Network Approach. Plant Cell Environment, 22: 483–493.
Anjaneyulu Y, Sreedhara Chary N, Raj D S S (2005) Decolorization of industrial wastewaters – available methods and emerging technologies – A review. Review of Environmental Science Biotechnology 4: 245–273.
Asad S, Amoozegar M A, Pourbabaee A A, Sarbolouki M N, Dastgheib S M M (2007). Decolorization of textile azo dyes by newly isolated halophilic and halotolerant bacteria. Bioresource Technology 98: 2082–2088.
Asgher M, Azim N, Bhatti H N (2009) Decolorization of practical textile industry wastewaters by white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor IBL-04. Biochemical Engineering Journal 47: 61–65.
Ashraf M (2004) Some important physiological selection criteria for salt tolerance in plants. Flora 199: 361–376.
Banat I M, Nigam P, Singh D, Marchant R (1996) Microbial decolorization of textile dye containing effluents, a review. Bioresour. Technol. 58: 217–227.
Barcelo J, Gunse B C (1985) Poshenrieder: Effect of Cr (VI) on mineral element composition of bush beans. Journal of Plant Nutrition 8: 211-21.
Blanquez P, Casas N, Font Z, Gabarrell X, Sarra M, Caminal G, Vicent T (2004) Mechanism of textile metal dye biotransformation by Trametes versicolor. Water. Res. 38(8): 2166–2172.
Chandra R, Bhargava R N, Yadav S, Mohan D (2009) Accumulation and distribution of toxic metals in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica compestries L.) irrigated with distillary and tannery wastewater. Journal of Hazardous Material 162: 1514 -1521.
Couto S R (2009) Dye removal by immobilized fungi. Biotechnology Advances 27: 227– 235.
Dayama O P (1987) Influence of dyeing and textile water pollution on nodulation and germination of gram (Cicer Arietinum). Acta Ecologia 9(2) : 34–37.
Elisangela F, Andrea Z, Fabio D G, Ragagnin de Menezes Cristiano Regina D L, Artur C P (2009) Biodegradation of textile azo dyes by a facultative Staphylococcus arlettae strain VN-11 using a sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 63: 280–288.
Forss J, Welander U (2009) Decolorization of reactive azo dyes with microorganisms growing on soft wood chips. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 63: 752–758.
Jadhav J P, Kalyani D C, Telke A A, Phugare S S, Govindwar S P (2010) Evaluation of the efficacy of a bacterial consortium for the removal of color reduction of heavy metals and toxicity of textile dye wastewater. Bioresource Technology 101: 165-173.
Jing X, Shaorong G, Yong T, Ping G, Kun L, Shigui L (2004) Antagonism and molecular identification of an antiobiotic bacterium BS04 against phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. High Technology Letters 10 (3): 47-51.
Kadar I, Kastori R (2003) Mikroelem-terhelés hatása a repcére karbonátos csernozjom talajon. Agrokemiaes Talajtan 52: 331–346.
Kannan V, Ramesh R, Sasikumar C (2005) Study on Ground water characteristics and the effects of discharged wastewaters fro textile units at Karur District. Journal of Environmental Biology 26(2): 269-272.
Kaushik P, Garg V K, Singh B (2005) Effect of textile wastewater on different cultivar of wheat. Bioresource Technology 96:1189-1193.
Kaushik P, Malik A (2009) Fungal dye decolorization: Recent advances and future potential. Environment International 35: 127–141.
Khan N A, Gupta L, Javid S, Singh S, Khan M, Inam A, Samiullah (2003) Effects of sewage wastewater on morphophysiology and yield of Spinacia and Trigonella. IndianJournal of Plant Physiology 8(1): 74 -78.
Krupa Z, Siedlecka A, Maksymiec W, Baszynski T (1993) In vivo response of photosynthetic apparatus of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to nickel toxicity. Journal of Plant Physiology 142: 664–668.
Lin S H, Liu W Y (1994) Continuous treatment of textile water by ozonation and coagulation. J. Environ. Eng. 120 (2): 437–446.
Lin S H, Peng C F (1996) Continuous treatment of textile wastewater by combined coagulation, electrochemical oxidation and activated sludge. Water Research. 30: 587–592.
Lopez M J, Guisado G, Vargas-Garcia M C, Estrella F S, Moreno J (2006) Decolorization of industrial dyes by ligninolytic microorganisms isolated from compositing environment. Enzyme Microbial Technology 40: 42–4532.
Machado K M G, Compart L C A, Morais R O, Rosa L H, Santos M H (2006) Biodegradation of reactive textile dyes by basidiomycetous fungi from Brazilian ecosystems. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 37: 481–487.
Mohammad A, Khan A U (1985) Effect of a textile factory wastewater on soil and crop plants. Environmental Pollution 37: 131–148.
Muhammad Asghar, Naseema Azim, Haq Nawaz Bhatti (2009) Decolorization of practical textile industry effluents by white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor IBL-04. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 47: 61-65.
Neelam Sahai R (1988) Effect of textile wastewater on seed germination seedling growth pigment content and biomass of Sesamum indicum. Linnean. Journal of Environmental Biology 9: 45–50.
Palacios G, Gomez I, Carbonell-Barrachina A, Pedreno J N, Mataix J (1998) Effect of nickel concentration on tomato plant nutrition and dry matter yield. Journal of Plant Nutrition 21: 2179–2191.
Rainey F A, Ward Rainey N, Kroppenstedt R M, Stackebrandt E (1996) The genus Nocardiopsis represents a phylogenetically coherent taxon and a distinct actinomycetes lineage: proposal of Nocardiopsaceae fam. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 46: 1088–1092.
Ramana S, Biswas A K, Kundu S, Saha J K, Yadava R B R (2002) Effect of distillery wastewater on seed germination in some vegetable crops. Bioresource Technology 82: 273–275.
Robinson T, McMullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P (2001) Remediation of dyes in textile wastewater: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresource Technology 77: 247–55.
Sahai R, Shukla N, Jabeen S, Saxena P K (1983) Pollution effect of distillery waste on the growth behaviour of Phaseolus radiatus L. Environment Pollution 37: 245–253.
Saratale G D, Kalme S D, Govindwar S P (2006) Decolorization of textile dyes by Aspergillus ochraceus. Indian Journal of Biotechnology 5: 407–410.
Saratale R G, Saratale G D, Chang J S, Govindwar S P (2010) Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium. Biodegradation 21(6): 999-1015.
Senthil Kumar S, Shariq Afsar T, Mohamed Yasar M, Mansoor Hussain A, Mohamed Jaabir M S (2010) A Study on Fungal Antagonism by Chitinolytic Bacterial Isolates from Prawn Culture Farms of Ramanathapuram District Tamil Nadu. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 4(1): 429-432.
Seregin I V, Kozhevnikova A D (2006) Physiological role of nickel and its toxic effects on higher plants. Russian Journal of Modern Phytophysiology 53: 257–277.
Sheoran I S, Singal H R, Singh R (1990) Effect of cadmium and nickel on photosynthesis and the enzymes of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.). Photosynthesis Research 23: 345–351.
Srivastava N, Sahai R (1987) Effect of distillery wastewater on the performance of Cicer arietinum (L). Environmental Pollution 43: 91–102.
Swamy J, Ramsay J A (2007) The evaluation of white rot fungi in the decolorization of textile dyes. Enzymes and Microbial Technology. 24: 130-137.
Van der Zee F P, Bisschops I A, Blanchard V G, Bouwman R H, Lettinga G, Field J A (2003) The contribution of biotic and abiotic processes during azo dye reduction in anaerobic sludge. Water. Res. 37 (13): 3098–3109.
Vanndevivera P C, Bianchi R, Verstraete W (1998) Treatment and reuse of wastewater from the textile wet-processing industry: review of emerging technologies. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 72: 289–302.
Wesenberg D, Kyriakides I, Agathos S N (2003) White-rot fungi and their enzymes for the treatment of industrial dye effluents. Biotechnology Advances. 22: 161–187.