Environmental Risk Assesment of Heavy Metals Content of Municipal Solid Waste Used as Organic Fertilizer in Vegetable Gardens on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 3, Issue 6-2, December 2014, Pages: 1-13
Received: Sep. 29, 2014; Accepted: Oct. 5, 2014; Published: Dec. 25, 2014
Views 3842      Downloads 323
Lar Alexander Uriah, Department of Geology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Usman Shehu, National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
This study was conducted on vegetable gardens in and around Jos on the Jos Plateau, North central Nigeria; a city which has had strong European influence as a result of a long history of tin mining activity in the area. The study seeks to assess the degree of accumulation and/or contamination of the heavy metals in compost from municipal solid waste due for application as organic fertilizer in vegetable gardens as well as the potential human health risk associated with the consumption of vegetables grown with such organic fertilizer. Three waste dumpsites in Jos and gardens were selected where vegetables cultivation (cabbage, lettuce, spinach, turnip, carrot, radish, beet root, tomato and spring onions) are practiced. The representative samples of compost material, agricultural soil and vegetables were collected and analyzed for heavy metals such as: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Sb and Se. Geochemical results show that the concentrations of these elements in the compost are higher (in decreasing order of As>Cd>Zn>Pb>Cu>Cr) compared to that in the soils yet to be applied the organic fertilizer. The degree of contamination of the soils and the compost, the transfer factor (TF) from the agricultural soil to vegetables and its health risk index (HRI) were calculated. Results show that in general, the agricultural soils are severely contaminated by As, Cd, Zn and Pb (CF= 10-25). Other elements such as Cr, Cu and Ni have moderately contaminated the soil. All the vegetables seem to have been severely contaminated by Se and As (Se>As>Zn) and therefore are good accumulators of these toxic metals. The leafy and the root vegetables appear to be the major accumulator of Se and As respectively. The TF of As in all the different varieties of vegetables is >1, indicating that this element is readily absorbed by these plants. The HRI value for As, Pb and Zn is >1 for the all the vegetables and therefore is unsafe posing serious human health risks.
Heavy Metals, Vegetable Gardens, Organic Fertilizer, Human Health Risks
To cite this article
Lar Alexander Uriah, Usman Shehu, Environmental Risk Assesment of Heavy Metals Content of Municipal Solid Waste Used as Organic Fertilizer in Vegetable Gardens on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Special Issue: Integrating Earth Materials, Diet, Water and Human Health. Vol. 3, No. 6-2, 2014, pp. 1-13. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.s.2014030602.11
Adiuku M.E Brown and Ogezi A.E (2001). The significance of mill tailings: case study of parts of Jos and its environs.
Baltrenaite, E., and Butkus, D. (2004) Investigation of heavy metals transportation from soil to the pine tree. Water Sci., Technol., 50, pp.239-244.
BodSch (1998) Bundes-Bodenschutzverordnung. (Federal Soil Protection Rule) in Bodenschutz (Soil Protection) Erich Schmidt Verlag Berlin
Buchanan, M.S, MacLeod, W.N., Turner, D.C., Berridge, N.G. and Black, R. (1971).The Geology of the Jos Plateau. G.S.N Bull.32, Vol.2.
Chove B.E, Ballegu W. R & Chove L.M (2006). Copper and lead levels in two popular leafy vegetables grown around Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Tanzania Health Research Bulletin (2006), vol.8 No.1
Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO, 2001). Food additives and contaminants-Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, ALINORM 01/12A, pp.1-289.
Cointreau, S. J., (1982). Environmental management of urban solid waste in developing countries: a project guide. Urban Development Technical paper No 5. The World Bank, Washington, DC. June .
David E. Stilwell, Thomas M. Rathier, Graig L. Musante, and John F. Ranciato (2008) Lead and other Heavy Metals in Community Garden Soils in Connecticut. The Connecticut Agricultural expiremental status, New Heaven Bulletin 1019.
Defra (2004). Review of environmental and health effects of waste management: Municipal solid waste and other similar wastes.
Dmek, Popirawa, M and K. Sawicka – Kapusta (2003). Damage to liver, kidney and teats with reference to burden of heavy metals in yellow-necked mice from areas around steelworks and zinc smelters in Poland. Toxicol., 186(1-2): 147-158.
Duruibe, J. O.1*, Ogwuegbu, M. O. C.2 and Egwurugwu, J. N. 3 (2007) Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. International Journal of Physical Sciences vol.2(5) pp112-118.
Michael Pollak and Enzo Favoino (2004) Heavy metals and organic compounds from waste used as organic fertilizer. ENV. A.2/ETU/2001/0024 annex2
Esawy Mahmoud, Nasser Abd EL- Kader, Paul Robin,Nouraya Akkal-Corfini and Lamyaa Abd El-Rahman (2009) Effects of different organic and inorganic fertilizers on cucumber yield and some soil properties. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5 (4): 408-414,
Falconer, I. D. (1911) The Geology and Geography of Northern Nigeria. MacMillan and Co. Ltd, London
Fatima I., Anjum M.R., Mamon A.N., and Kazi T.G.(2011). Trace metal contents of vegetables and fruits of Hyderabad Retail Market. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10(4): 365 - 372
Fisseha Itanna (2002). Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and Toxicological implications. Ethiop.J.Health Dev.16(3), pp.295-302.
Ejaz Ul Islam, Xiao-e Yang and Zhen-li He (2007). Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in some vegetables and food crops. J.Zhejiang Univ. Sci B, 8(1),pp.1-13.
Gao, Y., Wahi, R., Kan, A.T., Falkner, J.C., Colvin, V.L., and Tomson, M.B.(2004) Adsorption of cadmium on anatase nanoparticles-effect of crystal size and pH. Langmur, 20, pp.9585- 9593.
Ghaly. A. E and Alkoaik. F. N (2010). Effect of MSW compost on the growth and production of vegetable crops, American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 5(3): 274 – 281.
Hogarh.J.N, Fobil.J.N, Ofosu-Budu.G.K, Carboo.D, Ankrah.N.A and Nyarko.A(2011) Assessment of heavy metal contamination and macro–nutrient content of composts for environmental pollution control in Ghana. Global journal of environmental research 2(3): 133 – 139.
Ike, E.C. (1983) The Structural Evolution of the Tibchi Ring Complex. A case study of the Nigeria Younger Granite Province. Journal of Geological Society of London, pp. 781 – 788.
James D. Englehardt, Lora E. Fleming, Judy A. Bean, Huren An, Nicolette John, Jeff Rogers, Melisse Danits (2000) Solid waste management health and safety risks: Epidemiology and assessment to support risk reduction. Florida center for solid and hazardous waste management.
James E. Shelton (1991): North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service AG-439-19
Koenig, W, Leistner. J. and Prange. C. (1990). Soil examination in vegetable gardens on hazardouswaste sites. Umwelt, 20: 105-106.
Koledzi et al (2011): Experimental study of urban waste composting and evaluation of its agricultural volarization in Lome, Togo.
Kraus, P & U. Grammel (1992) Die Relevanz der Schadstoffdiskussion bei der Bioabfallkompostierung. (Relevance of contaminant discussion for bio-waste composting) in Abfallwirtschaft 9, MIC Baeza-Verlag Kassel
Kump, P. (1976a) Quantitative Analysis of Environmental Samples. Instructional manual. Ljubljana.
Lokeshappa B, Shivpuri K, Tripath V, Dikshit AK (2012) Assessment of toxic metals in agricultural product. Food Pub Heat 2(1):24–29
Lokeshwari, H., and Chandrappa, G.T. (2006). Impact of heavy metal contamination of Bellandur lake on soil and cultivated vegetation. Current Science, 91(5), pp.622-27.
Macleod et al (1971): The geology of the Jos Plateau. Geological Survey, Nigeria. Bulletin No. 34 vol. 1
Manjunatta et al, (2001). Geochemistry and Assessment of Metal Pollution in Soils and River Components of a Monsoon Dominated Environment Near Karwar, S.W. Coast of India. Environmental Geology, 40pp 1462 – 1470.
Manz, M., (1995). Environmental pollution by arsenic and heavy metals in soils, dumps, plants and slags of former mining regions of the central and southern Schwarzwald. (In German.) Karlsruher Geochem. Hefte, 7: 235-245.
Mench, M., Vangronsveld, J. Didier, V. and Clijsters, H (1994). Evaluation of metal mobility, plant availability and immobilization by chemical agents in a limed-silty soil. Environ. Pollut., 86: 279-286. [ISI][Medline]
Michael Pollak and Enzo Favoino: Heavy Metals and Organic Compounds from Wastes used as Organic Fertilisers Env.a.2./etu/2001/0024 annex 2
Michio, X. (2005). Bioaccumulation of organochlorines in crows from an Indian open waste dumping site: Evidence for direct transfer of dioxin-like congeners from the contaminated soil. Environ. Sci.Technol, 39, pp. 4421-4430.
Microsoft Encarta (2008), Microsoft Corporation.
Mohsen Bigdeli and Mohsen Seisepoor (2008) Investigation of metals accumulation in some vegetables irrigated with waste water in Shahre Rey – Iran and toxicological implications. American – Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 4(1): 86 – 92.
Mullet , J (1992) A review of European compost standards. In: Jackson, Merillot, L’Hermite,(eds). Composting and compost quality assurance criteria. Commission of the European Communities.331-5
Ogwueleka.T.C (2009) Municipal solid waste characteristics and management in Nigeria. Iran. J. envron. Health. Sci. eng, 2009 vol. 6 No3, pp 173 - 180
Okapor, N. (1985). Aquatic and waste microbiology. Forth dimension publishing Co Ltd, |Enugu, Nigeria 169p.
Olaniya, M.S., Sur, M.S., Bhide, A.D., and Swarnakar, S.N.(1998). Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soil and vegetation due to application of municipal solid waste-a case study. Indian.J.Environ. Health, 4, pp.160-168.
Olowolafe, E.A (2008) Effect of using municipal waste as fertilizer on soil properties in Jos area, Nigeria.
Onwughara Innocent Nkwachukwu, Nnorom Innocent Chidi and Kanno Okechukwu Charles(2010): Issues of Roadside Disposal Habit of Municipal Solid Waste, Environmental Impacts and Implementation of Sound Management Practices in Developing Country “Nigeria” International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Vol.1, No.5, December 2010 ISSN: 2010-0264
Pendias AK, Pendias H (2000) Trace elements in Soils and Plants, 3rd edn. CRC press, FL, United States, pp 10–11
Prabu, P.C (2009) Impact of heavy metal contamination of Akaki river of Ethiopia on soil and metal toxicity on cultivated vegetable crops. EJEAFChe ISSN: 1579 –4377.
South Africa National Environmental Management: Waste Act, 2008 (Act No. 59 of 2008).
Stephen J. Mallo(2007). Minerals and mining on the Jos Plateau
Sterrett, S.B., Chaney, R.L. and Gifford, C.H. (1996). Influence of fertilizer and sewage sludge compost on yield of heavy metal accumulation by lettuce grown in urban soils. Environ Geochem Health, 18(4): 135-142. doi: 10.1007/BF01771236.
Tijjani .M.N, Kenneth .J, and Yoshinar. H (2004). Environmental Impact of Heavy Metals Distributions in Water and Sediments of Ogunpa River, Ibadan Area, South Western Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, vol. 40(1).
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) (1989) Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Human Health Evaluation Manual [part A]: Interim Final. U.S. Environmental Protection agency, Washington, DC, USA [EPA/540/1-89/002]
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [US EPA] (2010) Integrated Risk Information System. Available at: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris/compare.cfm [Accessed Jan. 08, 2010] USDA (1980) Report and Recommendations on Organic Farming. Wash DC
USEPA, (2001a). Microwave assisted digestion of sediments, sludges, soils and oils. Official Methods/ 25. US EPA methods: Method 3051a, pp846.
USEPA, (2001b). Microwave assisted acid digestion of siliceous materials. Official Methods/ US EPA methods: Method 3051, pp846.
Valdares, J.M.A.S., Gal. M., Mingelgrin. U., and Page, A.L.(1983). Some heavy metals in soils treated with sewage sludge, their effects on yield, and their uptake by plants. J Environ. Qual 12(1), pp.49-57.
Wegelin, T. B. Jenka and Etter, R. (1995). Heavy metals in soils and plants of allotment gardens in the city of Zurich (Switzerland). Soil Environ., 5(1): 269-270.
WHO (1989) Health guidelines for the use of wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture. Report of WHO science group, world health organization Geneva, Switzerland, Tech Rep Sci. 778-10
William, F. Brinton (2000) Compost Quality Standards and Guidelines: An International view.
Woods End (2000) Solvita Compost Quality Seal of Approval Program. Document 2.0 Woods End Research Laboratory, Inc.
Yargholi, B. and Azimi, A.A. (2008). Investigation of Cadmium absorption and accumulation in different parts of some vegetables. American Eurasian J. Agric and Environ. Sci., 3(3): 357-364.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186