Comparative Study of the Bioadsorbtion of Cadmium and Lead from Industrial Waste Water Using Melon (Citrullus colocynthis) Husk Activated with Sulphuric Acid
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, December 2014, Pages: 1-8
Received: Apr. 7, 2014; Accepted: Apr. 25, 2014; Published: Jun. 14, 2014
Views 4844      Downloads 228
Nwankw Ogonna Daniel, Department of Animal Science and Environmental Biology, Federal University, Oye-Ekiti
Ewuim Sylvanus Chima, Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
Mogbo Tochukwu Chinedu, Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
Article Tools
Follow on us
Melon (Citrullus colocynthis) husk (Lloyd, 1898), a readily available agricultural waste product was used as a low-cost potential adsorbent to remove cadmium and Lead from industrial effluents. Adsorption studies were carried out on melon husks activated with sulphuric acid as a function of parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dosage and adsorbate concentration. Cadmium removal was found to be dependent on the three parameters with maximum removal attained at 70min with 0.6g for sulphuric acid (H2SO4) activated melon husk. Both metals were mostly removed at low adsorbate concentration. Lead removal did not show strict dependency on these parameters with maximum removal attained within the first minute with H2SO4 activated melon husks with records of 100% adsorption. Adsorption isotherms correlated well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and their R2 values ranges from 0.911- 1. Experimental data were also evaluated to find out kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process. Adsorption process for the two target heavy metal ions were found to follow pseudo-second order adsorption kinetics while their r2 values ranges from 0.797- 0.999. The r2 values and the pairwise t- test showed that lead is better adsorbed than cadmium. Activated melon husk, a readily available adsorbent was found to be efficient in the uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in industrial effluents, thus, predisposing it as an excellent alternative for the removal of heavy metals from water and waste water.
Bioadsorption, Waste Water, Melon Husk, Sulphuric Acid
To cite this article
Nwankw Ogonna Daniel, Ewuim Sylvanus Chima, Mogbo Tochukwu Chinedu, Comparative Study of the Bioadsorbtion of Cadmium and Lead from Industrial Waste Water Using Melon (Citrullus colocynthis) Husk Activated with Sulphuric Acid, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Special Issue: Environmental Degradation. Vol. 3, No. 6-1, 2014, pp. 1-8. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.s.2014030601.11
Abia, A. A., Horsfall, M. Jr. and DIDI, O.(2003). The use of chemically modified and
unmodified cassava waste for the removal of Cd, Cu and Zn ions from aqueous
solution. Bioresource Tech. 90(3):345-348
Aghar,S. S., Liew,A.G., and Suhardy,D.(2005). Dye Removal from Aqueous solution by using Adsorption on treated Sugar cane bagasse. American J. of Applied Sci. 2(11):1499-1503.
Ajmal, M., Rao R.A.K., Anwar S., Ahmad J and Ahmad, R. (2003). Adsorption studies on Rice husk: Removal and Recovery of Cd(ii) from Wastewater. Bioresource Tech. 86: 147-149.
Amuda, O. S., Ojo, O. I. and Edewor, T.I. (2007). Biosorption of Lead from Industrial Waste water using Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell. Bioremediation Journal. 11(4):183-194.
Bossrez, S., Remacle, J. and Goyette, J. (1997). Adsorption of nickel by Enterococcus hirae cell walls. J. of Chem. Tech. and Biotech. 70(1):45-50.
Boucher, J., Chabloz, C., Lex, O. and Marison, I.W.(2008). Oleaginous seeds, press-cake and husks for the Biosorption of Metals. J. Water Res and Technol. 57:7
Encarta Research Encyclopedia,(2009). (Electronic Li-brary).
Gardea-Torresdey, J.L., Gonzalez, J. H., Tiemann, K.J., Rodriguez, O. and Gamez, G.(1998). Phytofitration of Hazardous cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc ions by biomass of Me-dicago sativa (Afalfa). J. of Hazardous Materials. 57(1-3):29-39
Hayashi, J., Yamamoto, N., Horikawa, T., Muroyama, K. and Gomes, V. G. (2005). Preparation and Characterization of high-specific-surface-area activated carbons from K2CO3- treated waste polyethane. J. of colloid and interface Sci. 281: 437-443.
Ho, Y.S., John, W.D.A and Forster, C.F.(1995). Batch nickel removal from aqueous solution by sphagnum moss peat. Water Research. 29(5):1327-1332.
Igwe,J.C., Nwokennaya, E.C. and Abia, A.A.(2005). The role of pH in heavy metal detoxification by biosorption from aqueous solutions containing chelating agents. African J. of Biotech. 4(10):1109-1112.
Iyagba, E T. and Opete, O.S.E. (2009). Removal of chromium and Lead from drill cutting using activated palm kernel shell and husk. African J. Environ 3(7): 17 - 179.
Khan, N. A ., Ali, S.I and Ayub, S. (2001). Effect of pH on the removal of chromium (Cr) (vi) by sugar cane baggase. Sci and Tech., 6: 13 – 19
Khezani, L and capart, R (2005). Removal of chromium (vi) from aqueous solution by activated carbon; Kinetic and equilibrium studies. journals by Hazardous material. 123: 223 231.
Kiff, R.J and Little, D.R. (1986). Biosorption of heavy metals by immobilized fungal biomass ;In immobilization of ions by biosorption, Ed hunt E.H 1st Ed Elis Horwood,. Chichester, UK,219.
Lee, C.K., Low, K.S.,and P.Y (1999). Removal of some organic dyes by acid threat spent bleaching earth. Environ Technol. 20:99 – 104.
Lenntech Water Treatment and Air Purification (2004).Water Treatment, Published by Lenntech, Rotterdamseweg, Netherlands.
Lloyd, J. U and Cincinnati, O. (1898). Citrullus colocynthis . Reprinted from the Western Druggist, Chicago.
Mahvi, A.H. (2008). Application of Agricultural fibers in pollution removal from aqueous solution. Int J Environ Sc Tech 5 (2): 275 – 285.
Mahvi, A .H., Bazrafshan,E. (2009). Removal of cadmium from industrial effluences by electrocoagulation process using aluminium electrodes. World Appli. Sci J., 2 (1) 34 – 39.
Mahvi, A.H., Nouri, J., Omrani, G.A. and Gholami, F (2007a). Application of Platanus orientalis leaves in removal of cadmium from aqueous solution. world Appli. Sci. J 2(8): 40-44.
Mahvi, A. H., Alavi, N., Maleki , A. (2005b). Application of rice husk and its ash in cadmium removal from aqueous solution. Pakistan J. Biol Sci. 8 (5) 721 – 725.
Menahan, S.E. (1994). Environmental Chemistry. Lewis Boka Ralon.
Muhamad, N., Parr, J., Smith, D.M. and Wheatley, D.A.(1998). Adsorption of heavy metals in slow sand filters. In: Proceeding of the WEDC conference on sanitation and water for all, Islamabad, Pakistan. 346-349.
Namasivayam, C., and Ranganthan, K. (1995). Removal off Cd(ii) from wastewater by adsorption on wastewater Fe(ii)/ Cr(iii) hydroxide. Water Res, 29 (7): 1737 – 1744
Nasim, A.K., Shaliza., I. and Piarapakaran, S . (2004). Elimination of Heavy metal from wastewater using Agricultural waste as adsorbent. Malaysian J. Sci . 23:43 – 51.
Nolan, K., (2003). Copper Toxicity Syndrome, J. Orthomol. Psychiatry 12(4):270-282.
Ouki, S.K. and Neufeld, R.D.(1997). Use of activated carbon for the recov-ery of chromium from industrial waste water. J. of Chemical Tech. and Biotech. 70(1):3-8.
Papic, S., Koprivanac, N., and Meter, A. (2000). Optimizing polymer induced flocculation process to remove the active dyes from wastewater. Environ Technol. 21:97 -105.
Peternele, W.S, Winkler – Hechenleitner, A A. and Pineda, E.A.G. (1999). Adsorption of Cd(ii) and Pd(ii) onto functionalized formic lignin from sugar cane Bagasse. Biores Technol. 68 : 95 – 100.
Raghuvanshi, S.P., Singh,R. and Kaushik,C.P.,(2004).Kinetic Studies of Methylene blue Dye Biosorption on Baggase. Appl Ecol and Environ Res, 2(7):35-43.
Raji, C. and Ani-rudhan, T.S.(1997). Chromium(VI) adsorption by sawdust carbon: kinetics and equilibrium. Indian J. of Chemical Tech. 4(5):228-237.
Samarghandi, M.R., Nouri, J., Mesdaghinia, A.R., Mahvi A.H., Naser, S., and Vaezi, F. (2006). Efficient removal of phenol, lead and cadmium by means of UV/T102/H2O2 processes .Int J Environ Sci Tech, 4(i):19 – 25.
Sun, G. and Shi, W.(1998). Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for the removal of metalions from waste water. Industrial and En-gineering Chemistry Research. 37(4):1324-1328.
Vinod, V.P. and Anirudhan, T.S.(2002). Sorption of tannic acid on zirconium pillared clay. J.of Chemical Tech. and Bio-tech.77(1):92-101.
Volesky, B. (1994). Advance in biosorption of metals: selection of biomass types. Microbiology Reviews. 14(4):291-302.
Volesky, B. and Holan, Z.R. (1995). Biosorption of heavy metals. Biotech. Progress. 11(3):235-250.
Wong, K.K., Lee, C.K., Low, K.S. Haron, M.J. (2003). Removal of Cu and Pb Tartaric Acid Modified rice Husk from Aqueous Solution. Chemosphere 50: 23 - 28
WHO, (2004 and 2006).Guidelines for drinking-water quality. In: Chemical fact sheet. World health Organisation, Geneva.
Yu, Q. and Kaew-sarn,P. (1999). Binary adsorption of copper(II) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by biomass of marine algae Durvilleae potatorum. Separation Sci. and Tech.34(8):1595-1605.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186