Enhancement of Fecal Sludge Conversion Into Biogas Using Iron Powder During Anaerobic Digestion Process
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 5, Issue 6, December 2016, Pages: 179-186
Received: Dec. 3, 2016; Accepted: Dec. 12, 2016; Published: Jan. 9, 2017
Views 3485      Downloads 140
Authors
Ignace Chabi Agani, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, University of Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin, Cotonou, Benin
Fidèle Suanon, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, University of Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin, Cotonou, Benin; Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, China
Biaou Dimon, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, University of Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin, Cotonou, Benin
Edouard Binessi Ifon, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, University of Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin, Cotonou, Benin
Frank Yovo, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, University of Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin, Cotonou, Benin
Valentin Dieudonné Wotto, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, University of Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin, Cotonou, Benin
Olusegun Kazeem Abass, Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, China
Mathieu Nsenga Kumwimba, Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Anaerobic digestion is often used to stabilized and convert organic wastes into methane and biological fertilizer. However, when applied to fecal sludge, it doesn’t yield good methane due to its high content of nitrogen. Here we have conducted anaerobic digestion of fecal sludge in the presence of iron powder (Fe) as electron donor. Results showed that 4822.7 mL CH4 kg-1 was successfully recovered from fecal sludge in the control. The use of Fe in the anaerobic bio-digester remarkably improved methane yield. Indeed, up to 9933.3 mL CH4 kg-1 wet sludge was recovered when Fe is properly used (1 g Fe for 400 g wet weight), compared to 4822.7 mL kg-1 in the control. The concentration of methane in the produced biogas increased from 58.0% in the control to 72.5% and 77.6% in the presence of iron powder, respectively at the dose rate of 0.5 g Fe and 1 g Fe per 400 g wet sludge. COD removal efficiency was also greatly improved. 65.5% of COD was removed when excreta was properly spiked with Fe (1g Fe) against 42.2% in the control. This corresponds to an increasing rate of 23%. Furthermore, the presence of Fe in the digesters considerably reduced the odor by trapping produced sulphur ion and prevent the formation of H2S responsible for the sickening odor.
Keywords
Fecal Sludge, Anaerobic Digestion, Valorization, Iron Powder, Methane
To cite this article
Ignace Chabi Agani, Fidèle Suanon, Biaou Dimon, Edouard Binessi Ifon, Frank Yovo, Valentin Dieudonné Wotto, Olusegun Kazeem Abass, Mathieu Nsenga Kumwimba, Enhancement of Fecal Sludge Conversion Into Biogas Using Iron Powder During Anaerobic Digestion Process, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 5, No. 6, 2016, pp. 179-186. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20160506.15
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Panyadee S., Petiraksakul A., Phalakornkule C. (2013). Biogas production from co-digestion of Phyllanthus emblica residues and foodwaste. Energy Sustain Dev, 17 (5): 515-20.
[2]
Owamah, H. I., Dahunsi, S. O., Oranusi, U. S., Alfa, M. I. (2014). Fertilizer and sanitary quality of digestate biofertilizer from the co-digestion of food waste and human excreta, Waste Management 34: 747–752.
[3]
WHO-UNICEF. (2014). Progress on drinking water and sanitation 2014 update. Techn. Rep.; 2014 [http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2014/jmp-report/en/ accessed May, 2015].
[4]
Sridevi, V. D., Ramanujam, R. A. (2012). “Biogas Generation in a Vegetable Waste Anaerobic Digester: An Analytical Approach”, Res. J. Recent Sci., 1: 41-47.
[5]
Lee, I., Han, J-I. (2013). “The effects of waste-activated sludge pretreatment using hydrodynamic cavitation for methane production”, Ultrason. Sonochem, 20: 1450-1455.
[6]
BMGF (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation). Water, sanitation & hygiene. Strategy overview; 2011 [Seattle, USA. https://docs.gatesfoundation.org/Documents/wshstrategy-overview.pdf].
[7]
Alburquerque, J. A., Fuente, C., Ferrer-Costa, A., Carrasco, L., Cegarra, J., Abad, M., Bernal, M. P. (2012). Assessment of the fertilizer potential of digestate from farm and agro-industrial residues. Biomass Bioenergy 40: 181-189.
[8]
Lansing, S., Martin, J., Botero, R., Nogueira da Silva, T., Dias da Silva, E. (2010). Wastewater transformations and fertilizer value when codigesting differing ratios of swine manure and used cooking grease in low-cost digesters. Biomass Bioenergy 34: 1711-1720.
[9]
Goberna, M., Podmirseg, S. M., Waldhuber, S., Knapp, B. A., Garcia, C., Insam, H. (2011). Pathogenic bacteria and mineral N in soils following the land spreading of biogas digestates and fresh manure. Appl. Soil Ecology 49: 18-28.
[10]
Snell J. (1943). Anaerobic digestion: III. Anaerobic digestion of undiluted human excreta. Sew Work J., 15 (4): 679-701.
[11]
Colón J, Forbis-Strokes A, Ouksel L, Deshusses MA., (2013). Effective sewage sanitation with low CO2 footprint. 2nd International Faecal Sludge Management Conference. Durban, South Africa; 2013. Canter LW, Knox RC. (1985). Septic tank system effects of ground water quality. Inc.: Lewis Publishers.
[12]
Colón, J., Forbis-Stokes, A. A., Deshusses, A. M. (2015). Anaerobic digestion of undiluted simulant human excreta for sanitation and energy recovery in less-developed countries, Energy for Sustainable Development 29: 57-64.
[13]
Luostarinen S, Sanders W, Kujawa-Roeleveld K, Zeeman G. (2007). Effect of temperature on anaerobic treatment of black water in UASB-septic tank systems. Bioresour. Technol. 98 (5): 980-986.
[14]
Li, X. Q., Brown, D. G., Zhang, W. X. (2007). Stabilization of biosolids with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI), J Nanopart. Res. 9: 233-243.
[15]
Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Quan, X., Li, Y., Zhao, Z., Meng, X., Chen, S. (2012). “Optimization of anaerobic acidogenesis by adding Fe0 powder to enhance anaerobic wastewater treatment”. Chem. Eng. J., 192: 179-185.
[16]
Meng, X., Zhang, Y., Li, Q., Quan, X. (2013). Adding Fe0 powder to enhance the anaerobic conversion of propionate to acetate, Biochem. Eng. J., 73: 80-85.
[17]
Feng, Y., Zhang, Y., Quan, X., Chen, S. (2014). Enhanced anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge digestion by the addition of zero valent iron, Water Res. 52: 242-250.
[18]
Zhang, Y., Feng, Y., Yu, Q., Xu, Z., Quan, X. (2014). Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron, Bioresour. Technol., 159: 297-304.
[19]
Zhen, G., Lu, X., Li, Y-Y., Liu, Y., Zhao, Y. (2015). Influence of zero valent scrap iron (ZVSI) supply on methane production from waste activated sludge, Chem. Eng. J.. 263: 461-470.
[20]
Su, L., Shi, X., Guo, G., Zhao, A., Zhao, Y. (2013). Stabilization of sewage sludge in the presence of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI): abatement of odor and improvement of biogas production, J Mater Cycles Waste Manage. 15: 461-468.
[21]
APHA. (2012). Standard methods for examination of water and waste-water, 22nd ed. American Public Health Association, Washington DC.
[22]
Igesias-Jimérnez, E., pérez-gracía, V. (1992). “Relationship between organic carbon and total organic carbon in municipal solid waste and city refuse composts”, Bioressour. Technol., 41: 265-272.
[23]
Suanon, F., Sun, Q., Mama, D., Li, J., Dimon, B., Yu, C-P. (2016). “Effect of nanoscale zero-valent iron and magnetite (Fe3O4) on the fate of metals during anaerobic digestion of sludge”, Water Res., 88: 897-903.
[24]
Suanon, F., Sun, Q., Li, M., Cai, X., Zhang, Y., Yan, Y., Yu, C-P. (2017). Application of nanoscale zero valent iron and iron powder during sludge anaerobic digestion: Impact on methane yield and pharmaceutical and personal care products degradation, J. Hazard. Mater. 321: 46-53.
[25]
Ogejo, J. A., Wen, Z., Ignosh, J., Bendfeldt, E., Collins, E. R. (2009). Biomethane technology. Virginia Cooperative Extencion. Publication; 2009: 442-881.
[26]
Xie, S., Lawlor, P., Frost, J., Hu, Z., Zhan, X. (2011). “Effect of pig manure to grass silage ratio on methane production in batch anaerobic co-digestion of concentrated pig manure and grass silage”, Bioresour. Technol, 102: 5728-33.
[27]
Tognetti, C., Mazzarino, M. J., Laos, F. (2007). “Improving the quality of municipal organic waste compost”. Bioresour, Technol., 98: 1067-1076.
[28]
Khalid, A., Arshad, M., Anjum, M., Mahmood, T., Dawson, L. (2011). “Review-the anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste”. Waste Manage. 3; 11737-11744.
[29]
Yang, Y., Guo, J., Hu, Z. (2013). “Impact of nano zero valent iron (NZVI) on methanogenic activity and population dynamics in anaerobic digestion”, Water Res., 47: 6790-6800.
[30]
Li, H., Chang, J., Liu, P., Fu, L., Ding, D., Lu, Y. (2015). “Direct interspecies electron transfer accelerates syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in paddy soil enrichments”. Environ. Microbiol. 17: 1533-1547.
[31]
Cornell, R. M., Schwartzman, U. (2003). “The Iron Oxides: Structure, Properties, Reactions, Occurrences and Uses, second ed”. Weinheim Wiley-VCH., 2003.
[32]
Esposito, G., Frunzo, L., Liotta, F., Panico, A., Pirozzi, F. (2012). “Bio-Methane Potential Tests To Measure The Biogas Production From The Digestion and Co-Digestion of Complex Organic Substrates”, The Open Environ. Eng. J., 5: 1-8.
[33]
Tang, N. S. C., and Lo, I. M. C. (2013). “Magnetic nanoparticles: Essential factors for sustainable environmental applications”, Water Res., 47: 2613-2632.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186