Spatial and Temporal Dynamics and Parameters of Growth of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Nuwara Wewa and Nachchaduwa Wewa in Sri Lanka
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 4, Issue 1, February 2015, Pages: 23-28
Received: Dec. 3, 2014; Accepted: Dec. 22, 2014; Published: Jan. 20, 2015
Views 2973      Downloads 116
Mohamed Cassim Mohamed Zakeel, Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Puliyankulama, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
Prathiba Aruni Weerasinghe, Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Puliyankulama, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
Banumu Arachchige Dilhani Ganga Kumari, Postgraduate Institute of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Hetti Arachchige Mangalika Wickremasinghe, Department of Agricultural Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Article Tools
Follow on us
Cyanobacterial toxins available in drinking water pose a major health problem to humans and animals. Nuwara wewa and Nachchaduwa wewa are two important reservoirs supplying water for domestic purposes in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. As cyanobacterial toxins are resistant to deactivation by heat, it is important to control the proliferation of cyanobacteria in these reservoirs. Therefore, making an inventory of cyanobacterial variations with respect to time and space is imperative. Distinct temporal variations of temperature, pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and cyanobacteria density were observed in both reservoirs. Strong positive correlations existed between the above physico-chemical parameters of water and the cyanobacterial density in both reservoirs. These parameters can therefore be used as good indicators to assess the status these reservoirs with respect to cyanobacterial density and distribution.
Cyanobacterial Toxins, Chronic Renal Failure, Microcystin, Cyanobacterial Bloom, Nuwara Wewa, Nachchaduwa Wewa
To cite this article
Mohamed Cassim Mohamed Zakeel, Prathiba Aruni Weerasinghe, Banumu Arachchige Dilhani Ganga Kumari, Hetti Arachchige Mangalika Wickremasinghe, Spatial and Temporal Dynamics and Parameters of Growth of Toxic Cyanobacteria in Nuwara Wewa and Nachchaduwa Wewa in Sri Lanka, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015, pp. 23-28. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20150401.13
M.C.M. Zakeel, (2001), Chronic Renal Failure and Its Etiology (Feature article). YSF Newsletter, vol. 1, Young Scientists Forum, National Science and Technology Commission, Sri Lanka.
D.M. Dissanayake, J.M. Jayasekera, P. Ratnayake, W. Wickramasinghe and Y.A. Radella, (2011), The short term effect of cyanobacterial toxin extracts on mice kidney. Proceedings of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions: University of Peradeniya (LK), p. 13.
W. Ye, X. Liu, J. Tan, D. Li and H. Yang, (2009), Diversity and dynamics of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in China’s third largest lake, Lake Taihu. Harmful Algae, vol. 8, pp. 637-644.
W.W. Carmichael, S.M.F.O. Azevedo, J.S. An, J.R. Molica, E.M. Jochimsen, S. Lau, K.L. Rinehart, G.R. Shaw and G.K. Eaglesham, (2001), Human Fatalities from Cyanobacteria: Chemical and Biological Evidence for Cyanotoxins. Envirn. Health Persp., vol. 109, pp. 663-668.
I.R. Falconer, J.V. Smith, A.R.B. Jackson, A. Jones and M.T.C. Runnegar, (1988), Oral toxicity of abloom of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa administered to mice over periods up to 1 year. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, vol. 24, pp. 291-305.
P. Cohen, (1989), The structure and regulation of protein phosphatases. Annu. Rev. Biochem, vol. 58, pp. 453-508.
R.B. Fitzgeorge, S.A. Clark and C.W. Keevil, (1994), Routes of intoxication. In: International Symposium on Detection Methods for Cyanobacterial (Blue-Green Algal) Toxins. pp. 69–74. G.A. Codd, T.M. Jeffries, C.W. Keevil and E. Potter (eds.). Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK.
I. Chorus and J. Bartram, (1999), Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A Guide to their Public Health Consequences, Monitoring and Management. Spoon, London, pp. 41– 111.
K. Sivonen and G. Jones, (1999), Toxic cyanobacteria in water: a guide to public health significance, monitoring and management. In: Chorus I., Bertram J. Cyanobacterial toxins, E & FN Spon, London, United Kingdom, pp. 41-111.
T.W. Lambert, C.F.B. Holmes and S.E. Hrudey, (1996), Absorption of microcystins – LR by activated carbon and removal in full scalewater treatment. Wat. Res., vol. 30, pp. 1411-1422.
C.E. Boyd, (2005), Production Sustainable Aquaculture Practices; Copper Treatments Control Phytoplankton. Global Aquaculture Advocate, p. 69.
B. Soumati, H. Nasri, A. Meddour, S. Kadri and N. Loucif, (2005), Space-time dynamics and parameters of growth of toxic cyanobacteria in freshwaters in cheffia dam (North-East of Algeria). Ninth International Water Technology Conference, Egypt, pp. 755-764.
R.Y. Stanier, R. Kunisawa, M. Mandel and G. Cohen-Bazire, (1971), Purification and properties of unicellular blue-green algae (order Chroccoccales). Bacteriol. Rev., vol. 35, pp. 171-205.
L. Lawton, B. Marsalek, J. Padisak, I. Chorus and J. Bartram, (1999), Determination of Cyanobacteria in the Laboratory (Chapter 12). Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. WHO, ISBN 0-419-23930-8.
R. Rippka, J. Deruelles, J.B. Waterbury, M. Herdman and R.Y. Stanier, (1979), Generic Assignments, Strain Histories and Properties of Pure Cultures of Cyanobacteria, J. Gen. Microbiol., vol. 111, pp. 1-61.
Department of Meteorology, Sri Lanka. Available at: (Accessed: 16 July 2014).
Prentice and M. James, (2008), Temporal and spatial variations of cyanobacteria in Karori Reservoir, Wellington. MSc Thesis, The University of Wellington. Available at: (Accessed: 16 July 2014).
K. Kunlasak, C. Chitmanat, N. Whangchai, J. Promya and L. Label, (2013), Relationship of dissolved oxygen with chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton composition in Tilapia ponds, Int. J. Geosci., vol. 4, pp. 46-53.
W.W. Carmichael and I.R. Falconer, (1993). Diseases related to freshwater blue green algal toxins, and control measures. In: Algal Toxins in Seafood and Drinking Water, pp. 187–209. I.R. Falconer (ed.)., Academic Press, New York.
W.W. Carmichael, (1994), The toxins of cyanobacteria. Sci. Am., vol. 270, pp. 78-86.
L.E. Fleming and W. Stephan, (2001). Blue green algae, their toxins and public health issues. The Florida Harmful Algal Bloom Taskforce, Florida St. Petersburg, Florida.
D.N. Magana-Arachchi and R.P. Wanigatunge, (2013), First report of genus Chroococcidiopsis (cyanobacteria) from Sri Lanka: a potential threat to human health. J. Natn. Sci. Foundation Sri Lanka, vol. 41, pp. 65-68.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186