Street Orientations: The First Step towards a Sustainable Place.
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 3, Issue 6, December 2014, Pages: 305-317
Received: Nov. 17, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 24, 2014;
Published: Dec. 16, 2014
Views 2650 Downloads 125
Saad Khudhair Mahmood Al-jumaili, Al- Nahrain University, College of Engineering, Architectural Department, Baghdad, Iraq
Follow on us
In recent times emerged a lot of interests that seek to achieve sustainability in all fields, including the buildings and their relationship to the streets, which requires the organization of the relationship according to the local climate characteristics of each city, there are cities characterized by a warm climate, dry and other cities Hot- wet or cold or desert. These characteristics, must have a clear impact on the urban planning and Urban design in order to create sustainable cities. Main streets planning geographical and directing style plays a big role in achieving sustainability of cities where lined and organized by public and private, commercial and service to recreational buildings that make up the urban landscape architecture, and is the ideal direction for these streets are the first step towards the sustainability of cities, and that the sustainability of cities is not a luxury intellectually but are needed actual and important step that must be observed by the planned urban designer. There is variation in the intensity of the main streets in the city of Baghdad use by the people, first; some of them are not encouraged to walk during the day time, secondly; others lacked environmental efficiency, because of the presence of sunlight annoying, third; the lack of environmental processors provide protection for people during the movement, and the lack of fit comfortably with the height of the buildings display those streets. So there was a need to assess this situation through the creation of a comparison between the ideal orientations and the current orientation of the main streets of Baghdad city as a model. Pol service Report (1982); To be the perfect orientations for buildings in hot dry areas is 350 East toward the South. In spite of the lack of reference to the ideal orientations to the streets directly, but he took it, that the main streets will inevitably be in the same orientations at an angle of 350 buildings any South- east being lined up on those streets. The research aims to verify the ideal orientations for a number of the main streets of the Baghdad city, which constitute the urban structure, and the results showed that all the samples that have been verified lacks ideal orientations. Find the perfect guidance recommends the adoption in the planning and design of future studies and to find the necessary solutions to fix the reality of the streets that are an essential step towards achieving sustainability of cities.
Ideal Orientation, Street Orientation, Sustainable Place
To cite this article
Saad Khudhair Mahmood Al-jumaili,
Street Orientations: The First Step towards a Sustainable Place., American Journal of Environmental Protection.
Vol. 3, No. 6,
2014, pp. 305-317.
Dvies, Llewelyn" Urban design Compendium 2" English partnerships, the housing Corporation, 2007. www.urbandesigncompendium.co.uk.
Phillips; Christine;” Sustainable Place” A place of Sustainable Development; Published in Great Britain by WILEY-ACADEMY, 2003.
Frey, Hildebrand “Designing the City Towards a more sustainable urban form” Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001, 2005.
“Creating Sustainable Places”; Kansas City Region Shares A Vision For Success; by Jeff Hirt, Barbara Hensley and Dean Katerndahl; 2003.www.mocities.com.
National Complete Streets Coalition” Making Neighborhood Great Together, Smart Growth America; 2003. http://www.completestreets.org/complete-streets-fundamentals.
Toronto Pedestrian2002, Charter, www.toronto. cat/transportation/walking/pdf/charter.pdf.
AGIS Based Walkability Analysis Submitted By: Prasanta Bhattarai, MUP Supervisor: Dr. Li Yin, Assistant Professor, Department of Urban & Regional Planning; University at Buffalo August 2007.
McGraw-Hill; “Time Saver –standard, Professional Publishing”, Two Penn Plaza, New York, NY. 2003.
CNU Project for transportation reform; ”Sustainable Street Network Principles”, Congress for the new urbanism; copyright © 2012 published by Congress for the urbanism, the Marquette Building;140S. Dearborn Street, Suite 404, Chicago, I L606 03312. 551.7300. WWW. CNU.ORG, Congress for the new Urbanisms; 2012.
Street Design: Part 2 - Sustainable Streets; by David J. Carlson, Ellen Greenberg, and Morgan Kanninen; Public Road, Vol. 74. No. 5; March/April 2011.
McGraw-Hill “Dictionary of Architecture and Construction”. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Polservice; “Housing Technical Standards and Codes of Practice” Report Two; printed by design office MIASTOPROJEKT-KRAKOW; Ministry of Housing and Construction-State Organization for housing, Baghdad, Iraq, 1982.
Edinburgh City Local, Design Principles for New Development; Chapter 3.
Givoni, Baruch; ”Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design”; copyright©1998 by John Wiley &Sons, Inc. Canada,1998.
Solar access-Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar-access.