Effect of Sewage Water Irrigation on Soil Properties and Evaluation of the Accumulation of Elements in Grass Crop in Mysore City, Karnataka, India
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 3, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 283-291
Received: Nov. 1, 2014; Accepted: Nov. 12, 2014; Published: Nov. 20, 2014
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Mohammed A. Alghobar, Department of Environmental Science, Yuvaraja's College, University of Mysore, Mysore 570005, Karnataka, India
Lathamani Ramachandra, Department of Environmental Science, Yuvaraja's College, University of Mysore, Mysore 570005, Karnataka, India
Sidduraiah Suresha, Corresponding author. Peer review under responsibility of University of Mysore, Mysore, India
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Use of sewage water for irrigation improved chemical properties and fertility status in soil. Sewage water contains elements essential for plant growth and also contains heavy metals which may be toxic for animals if their concentration exceeds than permissible limit. To monitor this situation, a survey was conducted to ascertain the addition of heavy metals into agricultural fields through sewage water irrigation for grass crop in the farmlands of selected areas of Vidyaranyapuram in Mysore city. The results indicated that in sewage water the permissible amounts of total N, total P and potassium which are considered essential nutrients for productivity levels (grass growth) and soil fertility. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sewage water were in the proposed Food and Agriculture Organization range. The analysis showed that in soil concentration the irrigation with sewage water (SW) and treated sewage water (TSW) induces significant (P<0.05) decrease of soil pH when compared to MW and control treatment GW. The SW and TSW affect significantly the EC Indeed, in comparison with groundwater (GW), EC is greater with SW and TSW treatment. For Major elements contents and fertilizer as observed in the irrigation with SW led to a significant increase of Ca, Na, N, P, K and SO4 in comparison with the control ground water (GW). For Cl, in irrigation with SW has no effect on the Cl of soil. For heavy metals in comparison to the standard, the SW has no a significant (P < 0.05) effect in all elements except significant increase was noticed for Fe. In the grass, our investigation showed that irrigation with SW reuse led to a significant increase (P< 0.05) of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na contents. Heavy metals shown in grass irrigated with sewage water (SW) caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb as compared to irrigated ground water (GW). Where was no significant effect in growth of the grass as shown for heavy metals concentrations as Cd, Ni, Co and Cr.
Heavy Metals, Irrigation, Sewage Water, Grass, Soil
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Mohammed A. Alghobar, Lathamani Ramachandra, Sidduraiah Suresha, Effect of Sewage Water Irrigation on Soil Properties and Evaluation of the Accumulation of Elements in Grass Crop in Mysore City, Karnataka, India, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2014, pp. 283-291. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20140305.22
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