Spatial and Temporal Changes of Climatic Variables and Its Impact on Natural Disasters in Bangladesh
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 3, Issue 3, June 2014, Pages: 122-130
Received: May 11, 2014; Accepted: May 28, 2014; Published: Jun. 20, 2014
Views 2674      Downloads 143
Authors
Meher Nigar Neema, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000
Md. Azit Siraj, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Bangladesh is confronted with a big challenge to mitigate the significant impact of climate change. Due to the climate change, Bangladesh has already experienced average maximum temperature rising, minimum temperature decreasing, rainfall, relative humidity and cloud coverage decreasing resulting frequent and severe floods, tropical cyclone, extensive river bank erosion and drought. This paper focuses mainly to identify the spatial and temporal changes of climatic variables namely temperature, rainfall, humidity and cloud coverage of Bangladesh using data from Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD), Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) and Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARC) at 32 stations and also find out the adverse impacts of climate change especially on natural disasters of Bangladesh. To determine the climatic variability an inclusive meteorological estimation was carried out for the period of 2007-2011 and the results were compared with the period 1987-1991. The results of the climatic variability show that the average maximum temperature is increasing at a rate of 0.03°C per year but the annual minimum temperature is decreasing at a rate of 0.003°C per year. On the other hand, the annual rainfall, relative humidity and cloud coverage decreased by 0.63 mm, 0.013 percent and 0.007 respectively per year. For these climatic changes during the period 1970 to 2013, one hundred thirty four (134) major and minor cyclones hit the coastal regions of Bangladesh and almost two-third (88) of them hit in the period of 1992-2013 which is very alarming for our survival. On the other hand, it shows that the intensity and frequency of extreme flood events have significantly increased and the most extensive floods in the period 1954-2012 occurred after 1986 (1987, 1988, 1998, 2004, 2007) are considered by hydrologists to be at a size expected only once in every 20 years. The floods of 1987, 1988, 1998, 2004 and 2007 and cyclones of 1991, 1997, 2007 and 2009 are direct impact of climate change in Bangladesh.
Keywords
Climate Change, Temperature, Rainfall, Humidity, Cloud Coverage, Disasters
To cite this article
Meher Nigar Neema, Md. Azit Siraj, Spatial and Temporal Changes of Climatic Variables and Its Impact on Natural Disasters in Bangladesh, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2014, pp. 122-130. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20140303.13
References
[1]
Asaduzzaman, M, Ringler, C, Thurlow, J & Alam, S 2010, ‘Investing in Crop Agriculture in Bangladesh for Higher Growth and Productivity, and Adaptation to Climate Change’, Presented at the Bangladesh Food Security Investment Forum, 26–27 May 2010, Dhaka.
[2]
Yu, W, Alam, M, Hassan, A, Khan, AS, Ruane, AC, Rosenzweig, C, Major, DC & Thurlow, J. 2010. Climate change risk and food security in Bangladesh, EarthScan, London.
[3]
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[4]
McCarthy JJ, Canziani OF, Leary NA, Dokken DJ, White KS, Eds. Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation. and Vulnerability, Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Work Group II Input to the Third Assessment Report, Cambridge University. Press, Cambridge.
[5]
Harmeling, S ; Eckstein ,D. 2012. Global Climate Index 2013. Who suffers most from extreme weather events? Weather-related loss events in 2011 and 1992 to 2011. Kaiserstr 201, Bonn, Germanwatch e.v. Available at: www.germanwatch.org/en/cri.
[6]
World Bank (2001). Bangladesh: Climate change and sustainable development. World Bank Office, Dhaka
[7]
BMD (Bangladesh Meteorological Department).Unpublished raw data, Dhaka.
[8]
BARC (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council). Available at: http://www.barc.gov.bd/lt_climate.php
[9]
BWDB (Bangladesh Water Development Board). Unpublished raw data, Dhaka.
[10]
Ahmad, Q.K., Warrick, R.A., Ericksen, N.J. and Mirza, M.M.Q. 1996. The implications for climate change for Bangladesh: A synthesis, In R.A. Warrick and Q.K. Ahmad (eds.), The implications of climate and sea-level change for Bangladesh, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
[11]
Reid, S., Smit, B., Caldwell, W. and Belliveau, S. (2007), “Vulnerability and adaptation to climate risks in Ontario agriculture”, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 12 No. 4.
[12]
Hossain, M., Islam, A.T.M.A. and Saha, S.K. 1987. Floods in Bangladesh-an analysis of their nature and causes In: Floods in Bangladesh Recurrent disaster and people’s survival. Universities Research Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
[13]
Khan, H. R. 1991. ‘‘Impact of flood control and drainage projects on agricultural production in Bangladesh’’, paper presented at a seminar jointly organized by the Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh, and American Society of Civil Engineers, Bangladesh, Dhaka.
[14]
Brammer, H.1990. “Floods in Bangladesh: Flood mitigation and Environmental aspects”, The Geographical Journal, 156(2), Jul.
[15]
ADPC, 2007. Climate variability and change: adaptation to drought in Bangladesh. FAO, Rome, Italy
[16]
Tanner T.M., Hassan A, Islam KMN, Conway, D, Mechler R, Ahmed AU, and Alam, M. 2007. ORCHID: Piloting Climate Risk Screening in DFID Bangladesh. Detailed Research Report. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK.
[17]
Roy, K., Rahman, M., and Kumar,U. 2009. Future Climate Change and Moisture Stress: Impact on Crop Agriculture in South-Western Bangladesh. Climate Change and Development Perspective, Unnayan Onneshan. Volume 1, Issue 1. Dhaka, Bangladesh.
[18]
Warren, S.G. and Eastman, R.M. 2007. A Survey of Changes in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types over Land from Surface Observations, 1971–96. Journal of Climate, volume-20. doi: 10.1175/JCLI4031.1.
[19]
Panda, A. 2011. “Climate induced migration from Bangladesh to India: Issues and challenges”, UNU-E
[20]
Islam, M.R., 2004. Living in the coast: Problems, opportunities and challenges. Working Paper WP011, Dhaka. 2004, Programme Development Office (PDO) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP).
[21]
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 1992. Our Planet 4(2).
[22]
Douglas. I. 2009.Climate change, flooding and food security in south Asia. Food Sec. (2009) 1:127–136.DOI 10.1007/s12571-009-0015-1.
[23]
International Organization for Migration, 2010. Assessing the Evidence: Environment, Climate Change and Migration in Bangladesh. Regional Office for South Asia: Dhaka.
[24]
FFWC, 2012, “Annual Flood Report”, Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre (FFWC), Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
[25]
Hofer, T; Messerli, B. 2006. Floods in History, dynamics and rethinking the role of the Himalayas.United Nations University Prees, New York.
[26]
Ahmed, A.U. 2006. Bangladesh Climate Change Impacts and Vulnerability: A Synthesis. Dhaka : Climate Change Cell, Bangladesh Department of Environment.
[27]
IDDRI (Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations) / International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2012. The State of Environmental Migration 2011. France.
[28]
UNDP, 2004: A Global Report, Reducing Disaster Risk, A Challenge for Development.
[29]
EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database – www.emdat.be, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium). Available at: http://www.emdat.be/disaster-list.
[30]
Alley et al, 2007. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Summary for Policymakers. IPCC Secretariat: Geneva, Switzerland.
[31]
Shelter Preparatory Study (CPSP). 1998. Stage I: Feasibility Study, Draft Final Report; Supp. Vol. 3, Community Development Studies, Part A, Supp. Vol. 8; Environmental Analysis.
[32]
Chowdhury, A. 2002. Disasters: Issues and Responses. In: Bangladesh Environment: Facing the 21st Century. (2nd ed.) Ed. Gain, P. Dhaka : Society for Environment and Human Development (SEHD).
[33]
Williams, M. 2002. Climate Change Information Kit. The United Nations Environment Programme and the Climate Change Secretariat (UNFCCC) and sponsored by UNEP, the UN Development Programme, the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the UN Institute for Training and Research, the World Meteorological Organization, the World Health Organization, and the UNFCCC : Geneva, Switzerland.
[34]
Roach, R. 2005. Dried up, drowned out: Voices from the developing world on a changing climate. Teddington, Middlesex, UK : Tearfund.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186