Comparative Study of Water of Manchhar Lake with Drinking Water Quality Standard of World Health Organization
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 3, Issue 2, April 2014, Pages: 68-72
Received: Mar. 19, 2014;
Accepted: Apr. 10, 2014;
Published: Apr. 20, 2014
Views 3744 Downloads 236
Abdul Ghafar Channar, Center for Environmental Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Ali Muhammad Rind, Center for Environmental Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Ghulam Murtaza Mastoi, Center for Environmental Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Khalida Faryal Almani, Center for Environmental Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Khalid Hussain Lashari, Department of Fresh Water Biology and Fisheries, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Muhammad Ameen Qurishi, Center for Environmental Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Nasrullah Mahar, Dr.M.A Kazi Institute of Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Manchar Lake is the largest fresh water lake in Pakistan, which is degrading day by day due to effluents of various industrial sectors. This simple study was carried out to assess the possible changes in water of lake due to waste water discharge from industrial sectors, the analysis was carried out at Environmental Analytical Laboratory in the Department of Chemistry, University of Sindh Jamshoro and parameters were compared with water quality standards of world health organization. The analysis include the determination of pH, Electric Conductivity (EC), Salinity, TDS (Total dissolved solids), Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Nitrate, Chlorides and total hardness were performed
Abdul Ghafar Channar,
Ali Muhammad Rind,
Ghulam Murtaza Mastoi,
Khalida Faryal Almani,
Khalid Hussain Lashari,
Muhammad Ameen Qurishi,
Comparative Study of Water of Manchhar Lake with Drinking Water Quality Standard of World Health Organization, American Journal of Environmental Protection.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2014, pp. 68-72.
K. Hewitt, “Desertification, development, and the Admirals of Manchar Lake in Sind, Pakistan”, Econ. Geog. 53, pp 358–363, 1977.
IUCN, Sindh state of environment & development,Karachi, Sindh programme Office, IUCN
The World Conservation Union (2004).
M.B. Arain, T.G. Kazi, M.K. Jamali, N. Jalbani, H.I. Afridi, and A. Shah, “Total dissolved and bioavailable elements in water and sediment samples and their accumulation in Oreochromis mossambicus of polluted Manchar Lake”, Chemosphere 70, pp 1845–1856, 2008.
Y.M .Issa, A.A. Elewa, M.S. Rizk, and A.A. Hassouna, “Distribution of some heavy metals in Qaroun Lake and River Nile, Egypt, Menofiya”, J. Agric. Res. 213, pp 733–746, 1996.
Szymanowska, A. Samecka-Cymerman, and A. Kempers, “Heavy metals in three lakes in West Poland”, Ecotox. Environ. Safe. 431, pp 21– 29, 1999.
G.H. Mustafa Mirani, “Pakistan Fisher Folk Forum Report”, 2011.
L.F.Wang, L.Y.Yang, L.H.Kong, S.Li, J.R.Zhu, and Y.Q.Wang, “Spatial distribution, source identification and pollution assessment of metal content in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake”, Ch.J.Geo. Exploration. Available online 24 February 2014.
M.Eriksen, S.M.Stiv. Wilson , C.Box, A.Zellers, W.Edwards, H.Farley, and S.Amatoa, “Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes”, Marine Pollution Bulletin Volume 77( 1–2), pp 177–182, December 2013.
Y. Zhao, and Z.Y.Y.Li, “Investigation of water pollution in Baiyangdian Lake”, Ch.Proc. Env. Sci. 2, pp 737–748, 2010.
M. Zhang, J.Xu, and P.Xie, “Nitrogen dynamics in large shallow eutroph ic Lake Chaohu”, Ch. Env. Geol. 2008; 55 (1):1-8. doi: 10.1007/s00254-007-0957-6.
F.F. Wu, and X. Wang, “Eutrophication Evaluation Based on Set Pair Analysis of Baiyangdian Lake, North China”, Pro. Env. Sci. Volume 13, pp 1030–1036, 2012.
R. Nessim, and R.Riad, “Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Octopus vulgaris from coastal waters of Alexandria (Eastern Mediterranean)”, Chem. & Eco, 19, 2003.
I. Papagiannis, I.Kagalou, J.Leonardos, D.Petridis, and V.Kalfakakou, “Copper and zinc in four freshwater fish species from Lake Pamvotis (Greece)”, Env. Int. 30, pp 357–362, 2004.
F.Maffucci, F.Caurant, P. Bustamante, and F. Bentivegna, “Trace element (Cd, Cu, Hg, Se, Zn) accumulation and tissue distribution in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from the Western Mediterranean Sea (southern Italy)”,Chemosphere, 58, pp 535–542, 2005.
H.L.Nguyen, M.Leermakers, M.Elskens, R.De, F.,Doan, T. H, and W.Baeyens, “Correlations, partitioning and bioaccumulation of heavy metals between different compartments of Lake Balaton”, Sci. the Total Env. 341, pp 211 –226, 2005.
L.J.Chapman, C.A.Chapman, F.G.Nordie, and A.E. Rosenberger, “Physiological refugia: swamps, hypoxia tolerance and maintenance of fish diversity in the Lake Victoria region Comp”, Biochem. Physiol, 133 (A) pp. 421–437, 2002.
L.J.Chapman, C.A Chapman, P.J Schofield, J.P Olowo, L.S Kaufman, O Seehausen, and R. Ogutu-Ohwayo, “Fish faunal resurgence in Lake Nabugabo, East Africa Conser”, Biol, 17(2)(2003), pp. 500–511.
J.S. Balirwa, C.A.Chapman, L.J.Chapman, I.G. Cowx, K. Geheb, L. Kaufman, R.H. Lowe-McConnell, O. Seehausen, J.H. Wanink, R.L. Welcomme, and F. Witte, “Biodiversity and fishery sustainability in the Lake Victoria basin: an unexpected marriage”, Bioscience, 53 (8) (2003), pp. 703–715.
R .Nzomo, “Sustainable management of African Lakes – the case of Lake Victoria. Paper Presented at the First Living Lakes African Regional Conference”, 27–30 October, 2005. Imperial Hotel, Kisumu, Kenya. 2005.
G.M.Carr, and J.P.Neary, “Water Quality for Ecosystem and Human Health. A Report by United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS)/Water Programme. Ontario, Canada”, pp 132. 2006.
M. Arjonilla, J.M. Forja, and A. Gomez-Parra, “Sediment analysis does not provide a good measure of heavy metal bioavailability to Cerastoderma glaucum Mollusca: Bivalvia in confined coastal ecosystems”, Bull. Env. Contam. Toxicol. 52 (1994), pp 810–817.
M.A.L. Silva, and C.E. Rezende, “Behavior of selected micro and trace elements and organic matter in sediments of freshwater system in south-east Brazil”, Sci. Total Environ, 292 (2002), pp 121–128.
B.H. Shomar, G. Muller, and A. Yahya, “Seasonal variations of chemical composition of water and bottom sediments in the wetland of Wadi Gaza, Gaza Strip”, Wetlands Ecol. Manag. 13 (2005), pp 419–431.
A. Wagner, and J. Boman, “Biomonitoring of trace elements in muscle and liver tissue of freshwater fish. Spectrochim”, Acta B, 58 (2003), pp 2215–2226.
N. Pourang, A. Nikouyan, and J.H. Dennis, “Trace element concentrations in fish, surficial sediments and water from northern part of the persian Gulf”, Environ. Monit. Assess. 109 (2005), pp 293–316.
T.G. Kazi, M.B. Arain, M.K. Jamali , N. Jalbani , H.I. Afridi , R.A. Sarfraz , J.A. Baig , and A.Q. Shah, “Assessment of water quality of polluted lake using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study”, Eco. & Env. Safety 72(2), 2009, pp 301–309.
BirdLife International Cambridge (2005). Bird Lifes online world bird database: The site for bird conservation. Version 2.0. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. Available: http://www.birdlife.org. Accessed on 25 August 2006
N. Memon, “Environmental degradation of Manchar Lake”, Daily 'Dawn'. Karachi, 21 July, (2000).
G.M..Mastoi, S.G.Sarwar Shah, and M.Y.Khuhawar, “Assessment of water quality of Manchar Lake in Sindh (Pakistan)”, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment June 141(1-3) 2008, pp 287-296.
APHA, “standard method for examination of water and waste water, 20th edition, Amrican public health association, Washington D.C. (1985).
N. Chisty, “Studies on Biodiversity of Freshwater Zooplankton in Relation to Toxicity of selected Heavy Metals”, Ph. D. Thesis submitted to M.L Sukhadia University Udaipur. (2002).
S.Umavathi, K. Longakumar, and Subhashini, “Studies on the nutrient content of Sulur pond in Coimbator, Tamil Nadu”, J. Eco. & Env. Conservation, 13(5), (2007), pp 501-504.).
V.Sharma, K.K.Sharma, and A.Sharma, “Sediment Characterization of Lower sections of a Central Himalayan river, Tawi, Jammu (J&K), India”, Int. Res. J. Env. Sci. 2(3), (2013), pp 51-55.
F.E.Baer, “Chemistry of soil (Second ed. 1988), Oxford & IEM Publishing Co.New Delhi, 1965.
H. Galal-Gorchev, G. Ozolins, and X. Bonnefoy, “Revision of the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality”, Ann. Institutionali. Super Sanit, 29 (1993), pp 335–345.
G.P. Mishra, and A.K.Yadav, “A comparative study of physicochemical characteristics of Lake and river water in central India”, Hydrobiol, 59, pp 275-287, 1978.
P.K.Geol, B.Gopal, and R.K. Trivedy, “Impact of sewage on freshwater ecosystem.1. General features of water bodies and sewage”, J. Ecol. Environ. Sci., 6, pp 83-86, 1980.
J. Singh, D.K. Agrawal, and S.Panwar,”Seasonal variation in different physicochemical characteristics of Yamuna River water quality in proposed lakhwar project influence area”, Intl. J. Appl. Environ. Sci., 3, pp 107-117, 2008.
H.Seki, M.Takahashi, Y.Hara, and S. Ichimura, “Dynamics of dissolved oxygen during algal bloom in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan”, Water Research, 14(2), (1980), pp 179–183.