Modified Activated Carbon and Bentonite Used to Adsorb Petroleum Hydrocarbons Emulsified in Aqueous Solution
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 2, Issue 6, December 2013, Pages: 161-169
Received: Oct. 2, 2013; Published: Nov. 10, 2013
Views 3789      Downloads 331
Author
Eman Abdelwahab Emam, Department of Petroleum Refining Eng. and Petrochemicals, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Eng., Suez University, Suez, Egypt
Article Tools
PDF
Follow on us
Abstract
Adsorption is one commonly used technique for treatment of petroleum contaminated water. This study aims to modify the adsorption surface of bentonite clay and activated carbon as organoclay and acid modified activated carbon, respectively. The modified and unmodified adsorbents were characterized by analysis of specific surface area, cation exchange capacity and point of zero charge (pHpzc). Furthermore, adsorbents efficiencies were evaluated in the adsorption of petroleum hydrocarbon from oil-water emulsion. The synthetic wastewater samples were generated by emulsifying diesel oil in distilled water to investigate the effects of: (i) contact time, (ii) initial hydrocarbon concentration, (iii) pH, and (iv) adsorption isotherm. The modification of bentonite and activated carbon produced higher adsorption capacity than the unmodified adsorbents. In addition, the results showed that the adsorption of hydrocarbon depend strongly on pH and increased with increasing contact time and the equilibrium was reached after 3 and 4 hr with clays and activated carbons, respectively. The hydrocarbon removal efficiency achieved in the following order: organic bentonite > acid modified activated carbon > bentonite > activated carbon. The modified bentonite is an excellent alternative in the adsorption of hydrocarbon from oil-water emulsion removal with the highest adsorption capacity (48 mg/g at 2 g/L). Freundlich isotherm was best to describe the adsorption isotherm of hydrocarbons from oil-water emulsion by the all adsorbents.
Keywords
Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Oil-Water Emulsion, Adsorption, Bentonite, Acid Modified Activated Carbon, Organoclay
To cite this article
Eman Abdelwahab Emam, Modified Activated Carbon and Bentonite Used to Adsorb Petroleum Hydrocarbons Emulsified in Aqueous Solution, American Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2013, pp. 161-169. doi: 10.11648/j.ajep.20130206.17
References
[1]
Espinoza-Gómez, H. and Lin, S. W.: Oil water separation, using a hydrophilic polysulfonepolyvinylpyrrolidone ultrafiltration membrane. Rev. Int. Contam. Ambient., 2004, 20 (2), 77–82.
[2]
Cavalcanti, J. V. F. L.; Abreu, C. A. M.; Carvalho, M. N.; Sobrinho, M. A. M.; Benachour, M. and Baraúna, O. S.: Removal of effluent from petrochemical wastewater by adsorption using organoclay. Petrochemicals, DrVivek Patel (Ed.), ISBN 978-953-51-0411-7, 2012, 277–294.
[3]
Oliveira, G. C.; Mota, M. F.; Silva, M. M.; Rodrigues, M. G. F. and Laborde, H. M.: Performance of natural sodium clay treated with ammonium salt in the separation of emulsion oil in water. Brazilian Journal of Petroleum and Gas, 2012, 6 (4), 171–183.
[4]
Mowla, D.; Karimi, G. and Salehi, K.: Modeling of adsorption breakthrough behaviors of oil from salty waters in a fixed bed of commercial organoclay/sand mixture. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2013, 218, 116–125.
[5]
Bansal S.; von Arnim V.; Stegmaier T. and Planck H.: Effect of fibrous filter properties on the oil-in-water-emulsion separation and filtration performance. Hazardous Materials, 2011, 190 (1-3), 45-50.
[6]
Fu, Y. and Chung, D. D. L.: Coagulation of oil in water using sawdust, bentonite and calcium hydroxide to form floating sheets. Appl. Clay Sci., 2011, 53, 634–641.
[7]
Berman, Y. and Tamir, A.: Kinetics of droplets’ sedimentation in a continuous gravity settler. Chem. Eng. Sci., 2003, 58, 2089-2102.
[8]
Bregnard, T. P.-A.; Höhener, P.; Häner, A. and Zeyer, J.: Degradation of weathered diesel fuel by microorganisms from a contaminated aquifer in aerobic and anaerobic microcosms. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 1996, 15, 299-307.
[9]
Domenico, D. M.; Giudice, A. L.; Michaud, L.; Saitta, M. and Bruni, V.: Diesel oil and PCB-degrading psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from Antarctic seawaters (Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea). Polar Research, 2004, 23 (2), 141–146.
[10]
Watcharasing, S.; Angkathunyakul, P. and Chavadej, S.: Diesel oil removal from water by froth flotation under low interfacial tension and colloidal gas aphron conditions. Separation and Purification Technology, 2008, 62, 118–127.
[11]
Wang, S.; Chu, L.; Chen, W.: Fouling-resistant composite membranes for separation of oil-in-water microemulsions. Chinese J. Chem. Eng., 2006, 14 (1), 37–45.
[12]
Ademiluyi, F. T.; Amadi, S. A. and Amakama, N. J.: Adsorption and treatment of organic contaminants using activated carbon from waste Nigerian Bamboo. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., 2009, 13 (3), 39 - 47.
[13]
Ayotamuno, M. J.; Kogbara, R. B.; Ogaji, S. O. T. and Probert, S. D.: Petroleum contaminated ground-water: Remediation using activated carbon. Applied Energy, 2006, 83 (11), 1258–1264.
[14]
Okiel, K.; El-Sayed, M. and El-Kady, M. Y.: Treatment of oil-water emulsions by adsorption onto activated carbon, bentonite and deposited carbon. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 2011, 20, 9–15.
[15]
Ahn, C. K.; Kim, Y. M.; Woo, S. H. and Park, J. M.: Removal of cadmium using acid-treated activated carbon in the presence of nonionic and/or anionic surfactants. Hydrometallurgy, 2009, 99, 209–213.
[16]
Chen, J. P. and Wu, S.: Acid/base-treated activated carbons: characterization of functional groups and metal adsorptive properties. Langmuir, 2004, 20, 2233–2242.
[17]
Amuda, O. S.; Giwa, A. A. and Bello, I. A.: Removal of heavy metal from industrial wastewater using modified activated coconut shell carbon. Biochem. Eng. J., 2007, 36, 174–181.
[18]
Masooleh, M. S.; Bazgir, S.; Tamizifar, M. and Nemati, A.: Adsorption of petroleum hydrocarbons on organoclay. Journal of Applied Chemical Researches, 2010, 4 (14), 19–23.
[19]
Moazed, H. and Viraraghavan, T.: Practice periodical of hazardous. Toxic and Radioactive Waste Management. 2005, 9 (2), 130–134.
[20]
Eren, E.; Cubuk, O.; Ciftci, H.; Eren, B. and Caglar, B.: Adsorption of basic dye from aqueous solutions by modified sepiolite: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics study. Desalination, 2010, 252 (1-3), 88–96.
[21]
Bulut, E.; Ozacar, M. and Sengil, I. A.: Adsorption of malachite green onto bentonite: Equilibrium and kinetic studies and process design. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2008, 115 (3), 234–246.
[22]
Sears, G.: Determination of specific surface area of colloidal silica by titration with sodium hydroxide. Anal. Chem., 1956, 28, 1981–1983.
[23]
Priyantha, N.; Senevirathna, C.; Gunathilake, P. and Weerasooriya, R.: Adsorption behavior of fluoride at normal brick (NB) – water interface. Int J Environ Protec Sci., 2009, 3, 140–146.
[24]
Ashok, A.; Manas, B. and Anjali, P.: Removal of Crystal Violet dye from wastewater by surfactant modified alumina. Separation and Purification Technology, 2005, 44, 139–144.
[25]
Sulaymon, A. H. and Kshash, J. M.: Removal of oil from wastewater by organoclay prepared from Iraqi bentonite. Journal of Engineering, 16 (4), 5778-5798, 2010.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186