Lead Deposition from Mobile Sources: A Case Study of Ndola-Kitwe Dual Carriage Highway
American Journal of Environmental Protection
Volume 2, Issue 6, December 2013, Pages: 128-133
Received: Sep. 3, 2013;
Published: Oct. 20, 2013
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Cuthbert Casey Makondo, Department of Environmental Engineering, Copperbelt University, SMMS, Kitwe, Zambia
Jhonnah Mundike, Department of Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch (RSA)
Phenny Mwaanga, Department of Environmental Engineering, Copperbelt University, SMMS, Kitwe, Zambia
The main purpose of this study was to investigate levels of lead contamination from past use of leaded fuel in motor vehicles along the Kitwe-Ndola dual-carriage way (high way), in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. The study was conducted over a period of seven months (April to November, 2012). Following the phasing out of leaded fuel in Zambia in 2010, the question that needed addressing was “how much of the lead on the surface and sub-surface levels in soils was due to leaded fuel influence?” To answer this question, sixteen (16) sampling points were set from which 32 samples were collected to analyze for soil lead levels along the highway (HWY). The selection of the study area and consequently sampling points was based either on heavy traffic, economic activities or population density along the HWY. The samples were collected at different depths (0.05m and 0.50 m) and varying distances (5m and 50m) from the HWY at the selected sampling points. The collected samples were then analyzed for the lead content in triplicates. The results showed that concentrations reduced with distance from the HWY and concentrations were generally higher on the surface (0.05m) than at the bottom (0.50m). The results further showed higher concentrations of lead at points where vehicles generally slowed down along the HWY. This was particularly the case with the police check point (611 ppm) which had the highest levels of lead contamination on the soils. The results of this study revealed that there is lead contamination of soils along the Kitwe-Ndola HWY which emanated from mobile sources. It could therefore be seen that two (2) years after the phasing out of leaded fuel in Zambia, the soil lead levels remain influenced by the past use of leaded fuel.
Cuthbert Casey Makondo,
Lead Deposition from Mobile Sources: A Case Study of Ndola-Kitwe Dual Carriage Highway, American Journal of Environmental Protection.
Vol. 2, No. 6,
2013, pp. 128-133.
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